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[en] Excluding social tariff, the average price for natural gas for French households increased by 6.4% in 2018. This rise is explained, in particular, by increases in gas prices in international markets and by the rise in carbon tax at the beginning of 2018. On average, French households pay more for gas than those in the rest of the European Union, where prices vary considerably between countries. For businesses, the price of gas (not including VAT) increased by 8.0% in 2018, but remains lower than it was when it peaked in 2013. The businesses which use the most electricity can benefit from much lower prices than consumers who use small amounts and this difference is tending to increase. The price of gas for businesses in France is higher than the European average but lower than that seen in countries in northern Europe
[en] Excluding social tariff, the average price of electricity for French households increased by 1.9% in 2018, at a rate similar to that of general inflation, and is therefore almost stable in real terms. Taking into account the subsidised rates of electricity, replaced by the energy cheque at the beginning of 2018, the average price automatically increased by 3.2%. Even though the difference is getting smaller, French households pay less for electricity, on average, than households in other countries in western Europe. The price of electricity (not including VAT) for French businesses increased by 1.1% in 2018, but remains lower than it was when it peaked in 2015. The businesses which use the most electricity can benefit from much lower prices than consumers who use small amounts and this difference is tending to increase. The price of electricity for businesses in France continues to be competitive in Europe, in particular in relation to other large countries in Western Europe
[en] Electricity prices for French households rose by 0.8% in 2017 which confirms the slowing down of the electricity prices rise with respect to the 2008-2015 era. Even if the disparity is narrowing, electricity is cheaper as an average for French households than for households of other European countries. For the industry, prices show a 1.1% increase in 2017 after a 7.1% drop in 2016. Electricity-intensive industries benefit from lower prices than small consumers and this difference tends to increase. Electricity prices remain competitive in France for companies, in particular in comparison with big Western Europe countries.
[en] This publication presents and comments tables and graphs of data related to natural gas prices for companies and for households and to their evolution between 2015 and 2016 in all European countries, as well as in the Euro Zone (19 countries), and in the European Union as a whole.
[en] The average price of electricity for French households increased by 3.8% in 2019, at a faster rate with overall inflation. This increase was mainly due to changes made in the regulated electricity tariffs in 2018 and 2019. Even though the difference has a tendency to drop, French households pay less for electricity on average, compared with households from other Western European countries. The price of electricity (not including VAT) for French businesses increased by 6.8% in 2019. The businesses which consume the most benefit from much lower prices than consumers who use smaller amounts and this difference has a tendency to increase. The price of electricity for French businesses remains competitive in Europe, notably compared with other major countries in Western Europe
[en] In 2016 in the European Union, the electricity price shows a stronger drop for companies (- 4,1 %) than for households (- 2,3 %). In France, the price decline for companies is greater than the one at the European level (- 7,1 %). The price increases for households (+ 1,4 %), but in a lesser extent than previous years. In both consumer groups, the French price is significantly lower than the European average.
[en] We report that signal encoding with high-dimensional chaos produced by delayed feedback systems with a strong nonlinearity can be broken. We describe the procedure and illustrate the method with chaotic waveforms obtained from a strongly nonlinear optical system that we used previously to demonstrate signal encryption/decryption with chaos in wavelength. The method can be extended to any systems ruled by nonlinear time-delayed differential equations
[en] This accounting document has been elaborated in compliance with standards defined by the European Union, the International Agency of Energy, and the United Nations. It gives a global overview of the price, supply and usage chain for each energy source (coal, oil, gas, electricity, renewable energies, heat). It also gives data related to energy primary production, imports, transformation, transport, distribution, consumption per sector of activity, CO2 emissions due to energy combustion, both for mainland France and overseas territories. Statistical data and methodological indications are provided in appendices
[en] This publication first provides some key economic data related to energy, notably prices of different energies, and household energy expenses, as well a synthesis of the energy bill in France in 2018. The second part addresses energy production and consumption in France and in the world. It describes the various aspects of energy supply and consumption in France in 2017 or, in case of available data, in 2018, and their evolution over a long period. It also provides figures related to CO2 emissions and to energy intensity, as well as an international comparison of the main indicators. A third part addresses resources and usages for the different forms of energy which build up the French energy mix
[en] After three years of decline since 2014, the energy independence rate went up by 2.7 points in 2018 to 55.4 %. Indeed, primary production went up, due to an upturn in nuclear and hydroelectric production, whereas primary consumption decreased slightly. After correction for climatic variations, the latter is almost stable. Final energy consumption went down by 0.8 %, due to contrasting trends in the various final consumption sectors: rises in the commercial sector and especially in industry, but drops in consumption for non-energy use as well as in transport and residential. In total, households, businesses and administrations spent 167 billion euros on their energy consumption. Taxes (net of subsidies for renewable energy) account for euros 54 billion and net imports of energy products for euros 41 billion. French households spent on average euros 3,100 on their energy purchases, divided equally between fuel and housing, of which taxes were euros 1,400