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[en] Nuclear energy recently celebrated the 50th anniversary of its birthday and after some 30 years of industrial life, it presents impressive achievements in the world and more precisely in Europe. However, nuclear energy seems to be a turning point for its development. In the first period of its development, during the last 50 years, nuclear energy has overcome enormous technical challenges. Nuclear energy is already engaged in develop ping the future nuclear technologies on an international level. What is left to be done is to promote worldwide a safety culture and to enhance and adapt communication efforts
[en] The study reveals that progress in the sector's generation technologies has caused an acceleration in the Energy Transition, while related renewable growth continues to destabilize the wholesale electricity markets and key players. The study also highlights a profound change in customer energy usage, behaviors and expectations, with, for example, self-consumption, Smart Homes, Smart Buildings, Smart Plants, Smart Cities and the creation of communities to purchase or manage energy differently. As a result, the financial situation of established Utilities remains challenging. The report encourages Utilities to accelerate their transformation efforts and to leverage increasingly the power of Digital Transformation. The three main findings of the 2017 edition of the World Energy Markets Observatory report are: 1. Rapid evolution of generation technologies makes the renewables penetration unstoppable, thanks to their competitiveness gains, and despite the end of feed-in tariffs in Europe; 2. Empowered Smart Energy consumers are pushing Utilities to deliver new energy services; 3. Established Utilities, heavily hit by Energy Transition and customers' evolving expectations, have started large transformations. It's now time to accelerate by leveraging Digital Transformation
[en] The presentation will start with a snapshot on the different sub-sectors and functions in the Information Technology (IT) industry that is, worldwide, one of the largest employers of engineering and technical skills. A view of the presence of women in these different functions will be presented. The similarities with the nuclear industries will be underlined as both sectors employ technical and scientific competencies. An analysis of the historic role of women in science reveals some root causes of the relatively small presence of women in these sectors. The IT industry is a young and service oriented sector. At the beginning it has been embraced by many women and raised a lot of hope that it would not be 'sexist' biased. However, it is becoming over time more and more male dominated. The reasons of this shift will be analysed. Contrary to the nuclear industry, IT projects are increasingly managed in a distributed delivery mode with a growing share of Indian or other location offshore competencies. This brings more opportunities for professional women development. Will certain parts of the nuclear industry follow the same path? The barriers to female carriers' development, similar to those encountered in other sectors, have to be overcome as an increased female presence in the IT industry is a key factor to overcome the forecasted shortage of technical skills. This is true as well for the nuclear industry. The conclusion will focus on positive actions taken by in some IT firms either towards the education system or directed to their female employees. Some suggestions will be given on how to adapt these best practices to the nuclear industry. (author)
[en] Within half a century nuclear energy achieved very successful results. Only for European Community, nuclear energy represents 30% in electricity generation. At this stage, one state that the nuclear energy winning cards are competitiveness and Gentleness to the environment. Those winning cards will still be master cards for the 21st century, provided nuclear energy handles rigorously: Safety in concept and operation of power plants; radioactive waste management, and communication
[en] The policy of the various European countries with regard to high level waste disposal is surveyed. All the countries with a significant nuclear program, except Sweden, are looking at or practicing reprocessing, either as an alternative to spent fuel disposal, or as their sole choice. The author is strongly in favour of reprocessing, as being an economic success under European conditions. Underground studies for geologic disposal are well advanced in a number of countries. The partitioning and transmutation of americium is being studied in France. The author considers that waste management is a social issue inasmuch as it is not a major technological challenge. 2 tabs
[en] As the European Union defined a strong-willed policy of reduction of emissions, France developed and transposed European objectives in its law, notably with the law on energy transition and with the Energy Multi-year Programming (PPE) with the objective of a carbon neutrality by 2050. The PPE is a five-year energy planning tool (three years for its first implementation). The authors report an assessment of this first PPE (2016-2018) by recalling that this planning test was focussed on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, by assessing to which extent objectives have been reached, by discussing the efficiency of the adopted means. Then, they discuss how to modify and improve the PPE for the 2019-2023 period: remarks on the programming document, discussion of consumption decrease and de-carbonation related to building heating, development of electric vehicles, a redirected diversification of the energy mix which exhibits weaknesses and a low ambition, forgotten aspects, the PPE governance
[en] Economic growth is increasing the threat of climate change. It is triggering growth in global energy demand, which increased by 2.1% in 2017, (compared with 0.9% the previous year). This has made it difficult for countries to achieve the Paris 2015 Climate Accord objective to keep the global temperature rise below 2 degrees Celsius in 2050. It is now unclear how governments will be able to announce increased ambitions in line with the goal of holding global warming at 1.5 degrees Celsius in 2050. World Energy Markets Observatory (WEMO) is Capgemini's annual thought leadership and research report that includes useful insights and trends that every energy and utility player should know about as they plan for the future of their business. This 20. edition is drafted mainly from public data combined with Capgemini's expertise in the energy sector. Special expertise on regulation, climate challenges, and customer behavior has been provided by research teams at De Pardieu Brocas Maffei and VaasaETT. The current edition monitors the main indicators of the electricity and gas markets in Europe, North America, Australia, and South-east Asia and reports on developments and transformations in these sectors and addresses six main topics that include: Climate change and regulatory policies, Energy transition, Infrastructure and adequacy of supply, Supply and final customer, Transformation, Financials, Key Findings. Oil prices rose as high as US$80/barrel for the first time since 2014; this represents an increase of nearly 100% since January 2016. Global natural gas demand grew by 3%, thanks in large part to abundant and relatively low-cost supplies. China alone accounted for almost 30% of growth globally. Gas prices rose in Europe, Asia and North America in 2017, but remained below the 10-year average. Despite being the major commodity least loved by analysts, global coal demand rose about 1% in 2017, reversing the trend seen over the last two years. This growth was mainly due to demand in Asia, almost entirely driven by an increase in coal-fired electricity generation. Digital adoption has huge potential to decrease costs in the industry and service sector - among others, IoT and Blockchain witnessed progressive adoption. Grids are strongly impacted by the increased share of intermittent renewables and grid operators will strongly benefit from digitization. However, cyber security still remains a big concern, but this will not prevent utilities from deploying their digital transformation plans.
[en] The 21. annual World Energy Markets Observatory (WEMO) reveals a world struggling to balance the desire for continued economic growth with the need to take deliberate and drastic steps against climate change. In 2018, global energy consumption rose 2.3 percent - nearly twice the average rate since 2010 - as driven by a robust worldwide economy. Despite the rapid growth of renewables in some regions, oil, gas and coal accounted for nearly three-quarters of the increase in total energy demand, their highest share in five years. As a result, greenhouse gas emissions climbed 2 percent globally, a significant break from the plateau of 2014 to 2016. While renewables remain the fastest-growing energy source worldwide, investments during the first half of 2019 declined 14 percent compared with the same period in 2018. Population growth, as well as a lack of anticipated technical breakthroughs over the next two decades, further contribute to a bleak medium- and long-term landscape. This year's WEMO report explores these issues in greater detail and presents new ideas for how utilities, policy-makers and private companies can embrace a long-term strategy that balances growth and change - and draws opportunity from crisis.
[en] This WEMO edition reviews an exceptional period with two distinctive phases: - In 2019 worldwide economic slowdown combined with energy transition measures resulted in some improvements regarding climate change objectives. However, the world was not on track to meet the 2015 Paris agreement objectives. - In 2020 our planet suffered from the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic crisis that followed, plunging our world into a long period of uncertainty. This year's World Energy Markets Observatory report explores how the energy sector can balance these competing priorities. Here we present practical ideas for how utilities, policy-makers and private companies can embrace a strategy that builds short-term resiliency while improving long-term sustainability.
[en] This publication proposes about fifty brief articles written by experts (industrials, researchers, teachers, managers of public institutions, and so on) who sketched their prospective vision of tomorrow's energy world within a context of necessary social and technological transformations to face climate stakes. The necessity to struggle against CO2 emissions appears to be undisputed. Energy is supposed not to lack. Electricity will be the main and maybe prevailing final energy, and its distribution will be less centralised and organised in smart grids. Solar, wind and gas energies should be in development. Electric power storage is outlined as a very important issue, as well as present technological insufficiencies and the expectation of majors advances. The necessity of energy saving and of a higher energy efficiency is outlined by every one. Besides, the proposed prospective visions can be different and even opposite, notably regarding the pace of energy transition, CO2 taxing, the structure of energy supply, the role of nuclear energy. Some specific approaches are addressed: the critical of a high consumption of mineral resources (lithium, for example) could result in availability deadlocks, the problem of an increasing electric power consumption in an always more digitalised world, and the importance of an individual awareness of an energy responsibility.
[fr]Pres d'une cinquantaine de contributeurs, industriels, chercheurs, professeurs, responsables de grandes administrations - nous ont fait l'honneur de nous presenter en une forme dense (retenue pour cette synthese) leurs 'Perspectives energies 2050'. Nonobstant la diversite des redacteurs, un grand nombre de points de convergence apparaissent sans toutefois gommer d'autres points de divergence. Convergences d'abord sur la difficulte du travail prospectif et l'impossibilite structurelle a prevoir les ruptures. L'augmentation de la population mondiale, son urbanisation dans des villes frequemment situees a cote des mers et oceans forgent le contexte humain et geographique commun. La necessite de lutter contre les emissions de CO2 est incontestee. La demande mondiale d'energie en 2050 est prevue stable ou en hausse par la quasi-totalite des contributeurs, face a une offre ou, globalement, l'energie ne manquera pas. Pour tous, l'electricite s'imposera en tant qu'energie finale, en forte croissance si ce n'est dominante. Sa distribution sera moins centralisee et organisee dans des reseaux intelligents. Dans des proportions variees, les energies solaire, eolienne et gaziere devraient se developper. L'importance du stockage d'electricite est soulignee tout comme ses insuffisances technologiques actuelles et l'attente de progres majeurs. Pour finir, la necessite d'efforts de sobriete et d'amelioration d'efficacite energetiques est unanimement affirmee. Au-dela de ces convergences, apparaissent des vues prospectives diverses, voire opposees. Certains redacteurs prevoient, face a la necessite de lutter contre le rechauffement climatique, des transitions energetiques rapides alors que d'autres soulignent le long horizon de temps des investissements energetiques imposant des evolutions lentes. De la meme maniere, une taxation du CO2 plus ou moins universelle est a portee de main pour les uns et quasi inaccessible pour les autres. La structure de la fourniture d'energie ne fait aucun consensus. Pour les uns, en 2050, les energies fossiles resteront largement majoritaires avec un petrole maintenant plus ou moins son usage au niveau de production actuel et un charbon, certes 'propre', continuant a etre largement exploite. Pour d'autres, en 2050, les energies renouvelables seront devenues dominantes. L'hydrogene sera pour les uns un vecteur structurant, surtout pour les transports, alors qu'il est souvent par ailleurs totalement ignore. Un fort developpement de l'energie nucleaire n'est pas un scenario reellement envisage, sauf exceptions. En revanche, son maintien, voire une croissance moderee, est retenu frequemment. La dispersion d'opinions porte en grande partie sur sa mise en oeuvre: 3e generation, 4e generation, petits reacteurs? Si l'importance de la recherche et developpement dans les domaines de l'energie est frequemment soulignee, certains attendent et considerent comme acquis l'apport d'avancees substantielles, voire de ruptures, d'autres soulignent le caractere imprevisible des fruits de la recherche et la faiblesse des niveaux d'investissement. Outre ces convergences et divergences, des approches specifiques ont ete presentees. Pour n'en citer que trois, retenons la criticite de la forte consommation de ressources minerales (par exemple le lithium) pouvant deboucher sur des impasses de disponibilite, la problematique de la consommation croissante d'energie electrique dans un monde toujours plus numerise et l'importance de la prise de conscience individuelle d'une responsabilite energetique. Pour finir, comment ne pas souligner le pessimisme general quant a l'atteinte des objectifs de la COP21.