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[en] CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1 expression. -- Highlights: ► Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulate basal cortisol synthesis and CYP11B1 expression. ► The Ad5 element is required for nonhydroxylated flavone-elicited CYP11B1 induction. ► COUP-TFI elevates CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 transactivation but not through Ad5. ► AhR, ERK, and PKA are not involved in nonhydroxylated flavone-mediated regulation. ► Resveratrol affects cortisol biosynthesis at a step earlier than CYP11B1.
[en] In reactive sputtering, the introduction of a reactive gas can lead to a hysteresis transition from metal to compounds in both the target and substrate. The hysteresis transition is characterized by a sudden change in partial pressure, sputtering rate, fraction of compound formation, etc. Therefore, stability is an important issue in the process control. In this paper, a mathematical model with variable sticking coefficients based on surface kinetics is used to study the stability of the process. The variable sticking coefficient represents different mechanisms for surface reactions from the Langmuir to precursor type. In order to facilitate the analysis, several nondimensional parameters are identified and used for formulation. Results show that an unsteady system converges to a steady state relatively fast at low inflow rates. With an eigenvalue analysis, the range of positive eigenvalues is consistent with the presence of a hysteresis loop. It is also found that when the chemical reaction on the substrate is moderate, a higher sputter yield of the compound leads to a more stable steady state at lower inflow rates. Regarding the sticking mechanism, for the type of precursors with the parameter k < 1, the compound is easier to form and saturate on the surface due to the higher default sticking coefficient and the lower operating conditions for the hysteresis transition
[en] The electrical and morphological properties of magnesium oxide (MgO)/alumina (Al2O3) bilayered thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation at oblique incidence are reported. The MgO thin films are deposited when the incline angle is 55° on various Al2O3 thin films incline angles. A columnar grain with a roofing-tile-shaped surface is observed in these MgO/Al2O3 thin films. X-ray pole figures and θ-2θ scan, ω-scan are used to characterize in-plane and out-of-plane textures. The relationships between ω-FWHM, capacitor, leakage current, and the inclined angles are studied. The morphology is investigated by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). So the oblique angle deposition method is an effective way to control the microstructure of thin films.
[en] Objective: To study cortical thickness of the occipital lobe in children with ametropic amblyopia by using MRI technique and the FreeSurfer software. Methods: Nine children with ametropic amblyopia were included in the amblyopic group and 8 normal children were included in the control group. All the children underwent brain MRI on the Siemens Avanto 1.5 T scanner. For the cortical thickness analysis, 3-demensional MPRAGE images were collected and analyzed with FreeSurfer software package. Cortical thickness of related regions in the occipital lobe (including the cuneus, later occipital, lingual, and pericalcarine gyri) were recorded and compared. Results: The cortical thickness of the lingual, pericalcarine gyri on the left hemisphere and the cuneus, lateraloccipital, lingual gyri on the right hemisphere in amblyopic group were lower than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Morphological changes existed in the occipital lobe in ametropic amblyopic children. The analysis technique with the FreeSurfer package has a potential value in the clinical application. (authors)
[en] The controller developed by us is used to control the storage ring main magnet power supplies in NSRL. In this paper, we discussed the design and the primary testing result of the controller. (authors)
[en] In this paper, we investigate cooperatively surrounding control (CSC) of multi-agent systems modeled by Euler–Lagrange (EL) equations under a directed graph. With the consideration of the uncertain dynamics in an EL system, a backstepping CSC algorithm combined with neural-networks is proposed first such that the agents can move cooperatively to surround the stationary target. Then, a command filtered backstepping CSC algorithm is further proposed to deal with the constraints on control input and the absence of neighbors’ velocity information. Numerical examples of eight satellites surrounding one space target illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. (paper)
[en] We derive the n-fold Darboux transformation of the two-component Hirota and Maxwell—Bloch (TH-MB) equations and its determinant representation. Using Darboux determinant representation, we provide soliton solutions, positon solutions of the TH-MB equations
[en] In this paper, we construct the addition formulae for several integrable hierarchies, including the discrete KP, the q-deformed KP, the two-component BKP and the D type Drinfeld–Sokolov hierarchies. With the help of the Hirota bilinear equations and τ functions of different kinds of KP hierarchies, we prove that these addition formulae are equivalent to these hierarchies. These studies show that the addition formula in the research of the integrable systems has good universality. (paper)
[en] Oxidation of silanes into silanols using water/air has attracted considerable attention. The known methods with no exception required a metal catalyst. Herein we report the first metal-free method: 2 mol% Rose Bengal as the catalyst, air (O2) as the oxidant, water as the additive and under visible light irradiation. While this method produces various silanols in a simple, cost-effective, efficient (92%–99% yields) and scalable fashion, its reaction mechanism is very different than the reported ones associated with metal catalysis.