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[en] Bubble size is an important fundamental parameter in subcooled flow boiling. In this study, bubble behavior in subcooled flow boiling was visualized to confirm that mean bubble size is considerably different between different nucleation sites. Empirical correlations were developed using the present experimental data for the distribution of mean bubble size and the distribution of the size of bubbles produced in each site. Observation of the nucleation sites using a microscope revealed that tower-shaped structure is present at the nucleation sites where small bubbles are produced whilst no such structure was found at the sites where large bubbles are produced. This result suggest that bubble size is dependent significantly on the nucleation site geometry. (author)
[en] Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanostructures were synthesized by DC arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition, which possesses the advantages of being simple, economical, fast, effective and environmentally benign. The formation of “tadpole”-, dendrite-, belt- and rod-like MgO nanostructures was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the nanostructures consist of cubic phase MgO. Nanobelts that were 30–50 nm wide with a width/thickness ratio of 1–2 were synthesized in just 5 min. Most of the nanobelts were connected to others, and the connected nanobelts possessed a single-crystal structure. A formation mechanism for MgO nanostructures was proposed. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated the adsorption of water and CO2 on the MgO surface. The nanobelts exhibited relatively strong blue-green luminescence
[en] The remaining challenge for silicon photonics is creating a light-emitter on chip. Recently, a special group of two-dimensional materials, semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides, have been developed. These materials demonstrate unique electronic properties and excellent optoelectronic performance, opening up new possibilities to finally overcome this challenge. In this letter, we report a novel nano-scale silicon laser source, which was achieved by combining a far-field optimized silicon photonic crystal cavity and a two-dimensional gain material, tri-layer molybdenum ditelluride. When an optical continuous-wave pump was employed, the maximum lasing output power obtained was at a wavelength of 1080 nm. Such output power shows that this novel source has great potential for use in on-chip optical communication.
[en] The authors describe a fluorescence based assay for determination of the macrolid antibiotic erythromycin (ERY). It is based in the use of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) coated first with silica (to obtain AuNC@SiO2) and then with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). The MIP was synthesized from 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the functional monomer, ERY as the template, and tetraethoxysilane as the cross-linker via a sol-gel process that leads to surface imprinting. By using this method, the strong fluorescence of AuNCs was maintained in the resultant MIPs. After optimization of the experimental conditions, the signal (measured at excitation/emission wavelengths of 396/585 nm) decreases linearly with increasing concentration of ERY in the 0.1 to 11.9 μM ERY concentration range. The limit of detection is 12 nM, and the imprinting factor is 4.0. The method was successfuly applied to the determination of ERY in spiked human urine and saliva. < Image>.
[en] A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was deposited on the surface of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) to act as a recognition element for aspirin. The MIP was synthesized from 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the functional monomer, aspirin as the template, and tetraethoxysilane as the cross-linker via a sol–gel process that leads to surface imprinting. It is shown that the fraction of QDs and the polymerization process affect size and morphology of the MIP-coated QDs. The optical stability, effects of pH, detection time and selective determination of aspirin were optimized. The fluorescence intensity of the particles (photoexcited at 400 nm and measured at 628 nm) decreases linearly with increasing concentration of aspirin in the 2.0–50 μmol L"−"1 range. The limit of detection (at an S/N of 3) is 0.25 μmol L"−"1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of aspirin in human urine and saliva. (author)
[en] In this study, a simple and effective fluorometry method has been developed and used for the determination of Norfloxacin lactate (NOR-L) by the fluorescence quenching of thioglycolic acid (TGA)-coated CdTe quantum dots (QDs). The TGA-CdTe QDs were obtained in a simple way without precursor preparation, heating, pH adjustment and N_2 protection. The CdTe QDs were characterized by TEM, UV–vis spectrophotometer and spectrofluorometer. Meanwhile, spectrofluorometer was used to evaluation of simple, convenient and highly sensitive determination of NOR-L. After the experimental conditions were optimized, a good linear relationship was obtained from 0.1–100 μg/mL with the coefficient of determination (0.99342) and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.031 μg/mL. Moreover, a possible quenching mechanism was investigated and the CdTe QDs were also successfully used to confirm the NOR-L in pharmaceutical formations. The proposed method is rapid, simple, and applied. - Highlights: • The synthesis procedures were very simple. • The CdTe QDs were used to detect Norfloxacin lactate. • The mechanism of the proposed reaction was discussed
[en] Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MgO nanobelts were prepared by DC arc plasma jet CVD. • Growth time for nanobelts in synthesizing does not exceed 5 min. • Nanobelts exhibit high sensitivity in the selective determination of diphenols. • Crystal defects have been confirmed by HRTEM, FT-IR, PL and TGA. • Electrocatalytic properties were correlated with the presence of surface defects. - Abstract: The electrochemical properties of one-dimensional (1-D) nanomaterials are highly sensitive to their surface microstructure and crystal defects. MgO nanobelts were obtained by magnesium nitrate decomposition using the direct arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition technique, with a molybdenum substrate at 950 °C for 5 min. The structural details, defects, and electrochemical properties of MgO nanobelts were determined. From high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, the nanobelts contain numerous contacts, rough edges, vacancies, and doping defects. Nanobelts with large surface area and oxide ions in low coordination (with O5C2− and O4C2−, for terrace and edge sites, and O3C2− for corner and kink sites) were seen by various analytical studies. The electrochemical performances of the MgO nanobelts-modified electrode were investigated using standard techniques. The unique nanostructural features and crystal defects endow MgO nanobelt with excellent electrochemical performance as demonstrated in their application in the selective determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC); both can be oxidized at the MgO nanobelt-modified electrode. This nanomaterial allows the sensitive determination of HQ and CC without cross-interference. The MgO nanobelts/glassy-carbon electrode exhibited high sensitivity in the selective determination of HQ and CC, with detection limits of 1 × 10−8 M
[en] In this study, a simple procedure for the determination of λ-cyhalothrin was reported. CdTe quantum dots (QDs) capped by molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared and characterized by spectrofluorometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) was chosen as a stabilizer for CdTe QDs synthesis. The MSA stabilizer which comprises both thioglycolic acid (TGA)-like and 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-like moieties could accelerate the whole growth process of CdTe QDs comparing with TGA-like or MPA-like stabilizer. Meanwhile, the spectrofluorometer was used to evaluate the optical stability, effect of pH, and selective and sensitive determination of λ-cyhalothrin (LC). Moreover, LC could quench the fluorescence of the molecularly imprinted silica nanospheres (CdTe@SiO_2@MIPs) in a concentration-dependent manner, which was best described by a Stern–Volmer-type equation. - Highlights: • We choose Mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as the stabilizer for CdTe QDs synthesis. • The composite materials were prepared by the reverse microemulsion method. • The composite materials can be used for the direct analysis of relevant real samples
[en] Highlights: • Porous BDD/Ta sensor constructed using a Ni-assisted plasma etching method. • Sensor was applied to detection of dopamine and pyridoxine in human serum. • Electrochemical sensor has high sensitivity, selectivity, and long-term stability. • Selectivity of sensor is dependent on plane activity and surface chemistry. - Abstract: A porous boron-doped diamond (PBDD)/Ta sensing electrode was prepared for the fast, sensitive, stable, and discriminative detection of dopamine (DA) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) in human serum. All the exposed surfaces of the diamond grains of the BDD layer were etched into a porous form, with pore sizes of less than 500 nm and an average depth of about 200 nm. The electrochemical performance characteristics of the PBDD layer and the reaction mechanisms enabling the detection of DA and vitamin B6 were studied. Large numbers of oxygen-containing groups on the PBDD surface, as well as the activity difference of the different planes, enabled us to successfully distinguish between DA and B6 by using the PBDD/Ta electrode. The low background current of PBDD, the large active area of the porous surface, and the high electron transfer properties led to the PBDD electrode having a high sensitivity. Therefore, this sensor can be used to stably detect DA and B6 in serum. Aberrant levels of DA and vitamin B6 in body fluids are key risk indicators for some diseases; thus, monitoring the levels of both and other species in serum is of great significance to clinical diagnoses.
[en] In this paper, a simple procedure for the determination of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) is reported. Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) capped by molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared. MIPs were characterized by spectrofluorometer, UV–vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Meanwhile, spectrofluorometer was used to the evaluation of optical stability, the effect of pH, and the selective and sensitive determination of 2,4,5-TCP. Under optical conditions, MIPs-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs were successfully applied to the detection of 2,4,5-TCP in water selectively and sensitively, and a linear relationship was obtained to cover the concentration range of 5.0–50 μmol L−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9913. Moreover, 2,4,5-TCP could quench the room temperature phosphorescence of MIPs-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs in a concentration-dependent manner, which was best described by a Stern–Volmer-type equation. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs)-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were prepared. • The composite materials integrated the advantages of the high selectivity of the molecular imprinting and strong RTP property of the QDs. • The composite materials was successfully applied to selectively and sensitively detect 2,4,5-TCP in water