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[en] Highlights: • The transfer of power fluctuation in the integrated energy system with intermittent renewable energy sources is considered. • Nonlinear multi energy coupling characteristics modeling of combined cooling heating and power system (CCHP). • A dynamic coordinated optimization model considering electricity-gas distribution network and multi-CCHP system. • A two-stage optimization algorithm for solving the mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. - Abstract: As the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources in distribution network, the tie-line power fluctuation caused by intermittent renewable energy produces a detrimental impact on security and reliability of the main grid. Therefore, maximization of renewable energy utilization as well as stabilization of tie-line power fluctuation are both required in the distribution network, to ease the power regulation burden of main grid. Remarkably, the development of integrated energy systems makes it possible to transfer the fluctuation in power network to other larger inertial systems. This paper proposes a coordinated operation strategy for the gas-electricity integrated distribution system, considering AC power flow in the power network and the gas hydraulic calculation in gas network. In addition, based on the nonlinear multi-energy coupling external characteristics modeling of CCHP system, the power fluctuation of renewable energy sources is transferred to gas distribution network and cooling or heating system by coordinated operation of Multi-CCHPs. Moreover, a two-stage optimization algorithm is proposed to solve the corresponding mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. The simulations conducted on 33-node power distribution network and 24-node gas network show that the proposed method can effectively smooth the tie-line power fluctuation in variety case.
[en] Various developing countries have been promoting public–private partnership (PPP) infrastructure projects in recent years. Energy infrastructure project construction, which needs substantial capital investments, is a cornerstone of and supports economic development. A PPP-based energy infrastructure project is beneficial for alleviating developing countries’ financial burden and for facilitating the diversified development of the energy market. Therefore, to increase government income and reduce infrastructure project costs, the PPP energy project construction model attracts considerable attention of various industries, especially in developing countries. For example, as gross domestic product growth decelerates and the government debt ratio rapidly increases, many Chinese provinces and cities face financial obstacles to economic development; therefore the Chinese government has issued a series of PPP-based energy policies. However, a number of risk factors associated with PPP projects, and conflicting interests between governments and private investors, have resulted in project failure. This study analyzes the development of PPP in China from the economic and industrial development perspective. It combines the latest PPP energy policies of China to solve problems that stem from the main risk factors involved in constructing and operating PPP energy projects. This research also provides game analysis for achieving maximum benefits as the government and the private investor have conflicting interests. (letter)