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[en] Objective: To investigate the effect of hydrogen on radiation-induced acute injury in rat brain. Methods: Forty-five mature Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: saline therapy group, hydrogen therapy group and healthy control group. The whole brain of SD rat was irradiated with single dose of 20 Gy by 4 MeV electrons. Rats in therapy group were injected with hydrogen-rich saline after irradiation and were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14 d post-irradiation. The changes of malonaldehyde (MDA), super oxidase dismutase (SOD) and 8-hydroxydeoxygunosine (8-OHdG) in brain homogenate and the pathological changes in brain hippocampus were observed. Results: The brain water content (t=3.78, 3.18, P<0.05) and the contents of 8-OHdG (t=2.33, 2.71, 2.33, P<0.05) in the therapy group was lower than the control group at 7 d and 14 d post-irradiation. The contents of SOD were significantly higher (t=2.41-2.92, P<0.05) from 1 to 7 day, while the contents of MDA were significantly lower in therapy group than those in the control group from 1 to 14 day post-irradiation (t=4.01-6.20, P<0.05). Moreover, the damage degree in the nerve cells of hippocampus was less compared to the control group. Conclusions: The hydrogen-rich saline could have protection role in irradiation-induced acute brain injury in rats. (authors)
[en] Objective: To observe the effect of endostatin(Endostar) combined with radiotheraphy on the growth, microvessel density (MVD), the expressions of regulators of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) ingastric transplantation tumor, and to explore underlying mechanism. Methods: Thirty-two tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into four groups including control group, ES group, RT group and ES + RT group. Then the tumor-bearing mice survival and tumor volume alterations were observed. After treatments of drug and RT, the inhibition rate of tumor growth and tumor MVD were measured. Immunohistochemical staining method was used to detect the expressions of RGS5, VEGF and HIF-1α. Results: Compared with the ES group and control group, the ES + RT and RT treatment had effective anti-tumor effect(t = 7.4, 5.6, P < 0.05), where as the ES + RT was more obvious in anti-tumor with the lowest value of MVD in tumor. Compared with the control group, the expression of HIF-1α in ES group, RT group, and especially ES + RT group was significantly reduced(t = 6.5, 8.2, 13.1, P < 0.05). The expression levels of VEGF and RGS5 were increased in RT group but was reduced in ES group and ES + RT group, and the expressions of VEGF and RGS5 in ES group and ES + RT group had no significant difference(P > 0.05). Rank correlation analysis showed the expression of HIF-1α and the expressions of VEGF and RGS5 were positively correlated(r = 0.57, 0.71, P < 0.05). Conclusions: A possible mechanism of Endostar combined with radiotherapy on tumor growth inhibition may due to the inhibition of HIF-1α and its downstream VEGF and RGS5, and then inhibit tumor angiogenesis that results in the recovery of tumor blood vessels and tumor oxygen supplement. (authors)
[en] Magnetic polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) based on chitosan and sodium ligninsulfonate as the support to stabilize Fe/Pd bimetallic particles (mPEC-Fe/Pd) were synthesized for the degradation and decolorization of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. The morphologies and structures of the as-obtained composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Various factors potentially influencing the decolorization performance of methyl blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution (i.e., mPEC-Fe/Pd dosage, solution pH, initial dye concentration and reaction temperature) were investigated. mPEC-Fe/Pd exhibited higher catalytic activity towards the removal of MB and MG, which involved both adsorption of dye molecules on mPEC surface and reduction reaction by Fe/Pd particles. Nearly 99% and 91% of MB and MG were removed at initial dye concentration of 100 mg l−1 with 1.0 g l−1 of mPEC-Fe/Pd, respectively. The decolorization efficiency of MB and MG increased with the increase of solution pH and mPEC-Fe/Pd dosage but decreased with the increase of initial dye concentrations. mPEC-Fe/Pd could be recycled effectively, and the removal percentage of MB reached as high as 83.5% even at the eighth reuse. Furthermore, the catalytic performances were further investigated to remove other organic pollutants, in which 92.4% of oxytetracycline, 85.1% of Tetrabromobisphenol A, and 34.7% of norfloxacin were removed at 50 mg l−1 of aqueous solution using 1.0 g l−1 of mPEC-Fe/Pd. Due to high removal efficiency, rapid reaction rate, easy separation and good reusability, mPEC-Fe/Pd had the potential to become an environmental remediation material for the treatment of wastewater containing organic compounds. (paper)
[en] Purpose: To determine an efficient strategy for the generation of the internal target volume (ITV) for radiation treatment planning for esophageal cancer using 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Methods and Materials: 4DCT sets acquired for 20 patients with esophageal carcinoma were analyzed. Each of the 4DCT sets was binned into 10 respiratory phases. For each patient, the gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on the 4DCT set at each phase. Various strategies to derive ITV were explored, including the volume from the maximum intensity projection (MIP; ITVMIP), unions of the GTVs from selected multiple phases ITV2 (0% and 50% phases), ITV3 (ITV2 plus 80%), and ITV4 (ITV3 plus 60%), as well as the volumes expanded from ITV2 and ITV3 with a uniform margin. These ITVs were compared to ITV10 (the union of the GTVs for all 10 phases) and the differences were measured with the overlap ratio (OR) and relative volume ratio (RVR) relative to ITV10 (ITVx/ITV10). Results: For all patients studied, the average GTV from a single phase was 84.9% of ITV10. The average ORs were 91.2%, 91.3%, 94.5%, and 96.4% for ITVMIP, ITV2, ITV3, and ITV4, respectively. Low ORs were associated with irregular breathing patterns. ITV3s plus 1 mm uniform margins (ITV3+1) led to an average OR of 98.1% and an average RVR of 106.4%. Conclusions: The ITV generated directly from MIP underestimates the range of the respiration motion for esophageal cancer. The ITV generated from 3 phases (ITV3) may be used for regular breathers, whereas the ITV generated from 4 phases (ITV4) or ITV3 plus a 1-mm uniform margin may be applied for irregular breathers
[en] Highlights: • SA@CoFe_2O_4-PDA with magnetic particles and biopolymers were used for dye removal. • SA@CoFe_2O_4-PDA exhibited the synergistic effect. • High adsorption capacities and fast kinetics were obtained. • Cationic dyes could be removed with high efficiency in a wide pH range. • Possible mechanism of adsorption was investigated. - Abstract: A simple and efficient method for production of magnetic composites by decorating CoFe_2O_4 with polydopamine (PDA) through oxidative polymerization of dopamine was conducted. Further, magnetic alginate beads with porous structure containing well-dispersed CoFe_2O_4-PDA were fabricated by ionic crosslinking technology. The resulting SA@CoFe_2O_4-PDA beads were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffractometer, vibrating sample magnetometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption potential of SA@CoFe_2O_4-PDA beads for organic dyes including Methylene Blue (MB), Crystal Violet (CV) and Malachite Green (MG) was evaluated. SA@CoFe_2O_4-PDA beads exhibited excellent adsorption performances due to the composite effect, large surface area and porous structure. Organic dyes could be removed from water solution with high efficiency in a wide pH range of 4.0–9.0. Moreover, it exhibited much higher adsorptivity towards MB and CV with the maximum adsorption capacities of 466.60 and 456.52 mg/g, respectively, which were much higher than that of MG (248.78 mg/g). Ca-electrolyte had obvious adverse effects on MB and CV adsorption than MG. FTIR and XPS demonstrated that carboxylate, catechol, hydroxyl and amine groups might be involved in adsorption of organic dyes. The characteristics of wide pH range, high adsorption capacity and convenient magnetic separation would make SA@CoFe_2O_4-PDA beads as effective adsorbent for removal of organic dyes from wastewater.