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[en] Limnetic invertebrates are threatened in the whole area of their distribution, above all in the countries of Western and Central Europe. The causes of threat are pollution of the rivers and disappearance of wetland sites, as well as control of water streams. Selection of the presented species was guided by the intention to document the different types of distribution in the territory of Slovakia and the species threatened at the European level. (authors)
[en] Putting the Cunovo reservoir into operation caused an increase of the ground water level in the monitored areas between Bratislava and beginning of the by-pass canal. In spite of, the monitored areas 1 and 2 retained their original character. There can be found forest-steppe biotopes with valuable xerothermophilous fauna. Monitoring areas under the outlet canal (area 7 and 8 are influenced little by the hydropower structures. The first indications of aridisation can be noticed here, too. The most affected monitoring areas are in the diversion territory, where important hydrological changes arise. However, this reality was disclosed differently in the localities 5 an 6, where (similarly as with epigeical bugs) the highest qualitative and quantitative representation of Braconidae was observed, and even differently in the localities 3 and 4, which are mostly affected from the point of view of occurrence of the model group. An improvement of the present state can be reached by increasing the ground water level and strictly controlling the export of wood material from the flood-plain forest. (author). 1 tabs., 2 figs., 6 refs
[sk]Uvedenie zdrze Cunovo do prevadzky sposobilo zvysenie hladiny podzemnej vody na monitorovacich medzi Bratislavou a zaciatkom derivacneho kanala, Napriek tomu monitorovacie plochy 1 a 2 si zachovali svoj povodny charakter. Nachadzaju sa tu lesnostepne biotopy s cennou xerotermofilnou faunou. Monitorovane plochy pod odpadovym kanalom (plochy 7 a 9) su malo ovplyvnene objektami vodneho diela. Tu boli tiez spozorovane prve indikacie aridizacie. Najviac ovplyvnene monitorovane plochy su na uzemi blizko stareho koryta Dunaja, na ktorych dochadza k vyznamnym hydrologickym zmenam. Avsak tato skutocnost sa prejavuje rozdielne na lokalitach 5 a 6, kde bola pozorovana vyssia kvalitativna a kvantitativna pritomnost lumcikov a rozdielne na na lokalitach 3 a 4, ktore su z hladiska vyskytu modelovej skupiny najviac ovplyvnene. Urcite zlepsenie sucasneho stavu mozno dosiahnut zvysenim hladiny podzemnej vody a prisnou kontrolou tazby dreva v luznom lese. (autor)
[en] Wobenzym was used as a radioprotective agent. System enzymotherapy was administered to 10 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, after buccopharyngotomy with mandibulotomy and osteosynthesis, with post-operative radiotherapy. Before starting the prospective study, Wobenzym together with Dalacin was administered to 3 patients after buccopharyngotomy and mandibulotomy with osteosynthesis and post-irradiation osteoradionecrosis. Laboratory examination of urine to detect transverse pyridinium bonds as a marker of disturbed bone metabolism was performed in patients with post-irradiation necrosis. The post-irradiation changes of mucous membranes and skin were assessed based on the WHO scale. In none of the patients, radiotherapy had to be discontinued for serious mucositis or dermatitis. No late osteoradionecrosis was observed either. System enzymotherapy as a radioprotective shows promise
[en] Cation-active membranes for electrodialysis were prepared by pre-irradiation grafting of polystyrene on various types of high-pressure polyethylene granulate, followed by plasticizing, pressing and sulfonation. The electrochemical and separation properties of the membranes were determined and compared with those of membranes prepared by pre-irradiation grafting on foils of Bralen FB 4-18 polyethylene. For both procedures, membranes exhibiting satisfactory working parameters can be obtained by optimizing the conditions of preparation. (author). 8 figs., 8 refs
[en] On this map the historical migration routes of animals and distribution of migroelements on the territory of the Slovak Republic are shown. During the post-glacial era the individual migroelements participating in composition of the present fauna spread from the different glacial refuges by various migration routes. The majority of these migrations took place in different times within the Holocene and Eem. The recent spreading of the individual migroelemens is documented on the example of the permanent and temporary macrozoobentos, above all the molluscs. Migration routes of both of them are comparatively reliably documented. The species of the Western Europe, prevailingly the forest species of mussels spread by the Danube route. The forest species today with the European, Central European or Alpine- Carpathian areas spread by the Illyrian route. The steppe or xerophile and thermophile species spread by the Pannonian route from the Mediterranean refuges in the post-glacial era. The forest and oreal Carpathian endemits spread by the Carpathian route. The forest and steppe species with broader recent area spread from the north-east and along the external arch of the Carpathians by the Sarmatian route. Comparatively scarcely frequented Silesian route served to the migrants with alpine or Atlantic distribution. (authors)
[en] High-power pulsed dc magnetron discharges for ionized sputtering of titanium films were investigated. The depositions were performed using a strongly unbalanced magnetron source with a planar titanium target of 100 mm diameter. The repetition frequencies were 1 and 20 kHz at 20% and 50% duty cycles and argon pressures of 0.5 and 5 Pa. Time evolutions of the discharge characteristics were measured at a target power density in a pulse up to 740 W cm-2. Time-averaged mass spectroscopy was carried out at substrate positions of 100 and 200 mm from the target. It was shown that argon ions are predominant (69-81%) in total ion fluxes onto the substrate. The Ti+ and Ar+ ion energy distributions with broadened low-energy peaks are extended to higher energies (50 eV relative to the ground potential). The ionized fraction of sputtered titanium atoms in the flux onto the substrate was in the range from 60% to 99%.
[en] We report on the results obtained using time-resolved Langmuir probe measurements in high-power pulsed dc magnetron sputtering discharges. Time evolutions of the electron energy distribution and the local plasma parameters were investigated at a substrate position of 100 mm from a planar target of 100 mm diameter during a high-rate deposition of copper films. The average target power density in a pulse was 500 W cm-2 at a repetition frequency of 1 kHz, a voltage pulse duration of 200 μs and an argon pressure of 1 Pa. The electron energy distributions with two energy groups and sharply truncated high-energy tails were observed during a pulse. After a fast rise in a 50 μs initial stage of the pulse, the kinetic temperature of electrons, defined using the mean electron energy, remained in the range from 10 500 to 12 200 K till the pulse termination. The temperature of weakly populated hot electrons decreased rapidly in the initial stage of the pulse approaching the kinetic temperature approximately 100 μs after a pulse initiation. High plasma densities, being in the range 1 x 1012-2 x 1012 cm-3 for 100 μs, were achieved at the substrate position with a 50 μs delay after establishing the 125 μs steady-state discharge regime with the target power density of 650-680 W cm-2 during a pulse. The plasma potential slowly increased from 0.5 to 3.5 V during the pulse and 25 μs after its termination.
[en] Recently proposed quantum-chaotic sensors achieve quantum enhancements in measurement precision by applying nonlinear control pulses to the dynamics of the quantum sensor while using classical initial states that are easy to prepare. Here, we use the cross-entropy method of reinforcement learning (RL) to optimize the strength and position of control pulses. Compared to the quantum-chaotic sensors with periodic control pulses in the presence of superradiant damping, we find that decoherence can be fought even better and measurement precision can be enhanced further by optimizing the control. In some examples, we find enhancements in sensitivity by more than an order of magnitude. By visualizing the evolution of the quantum state, the mechanism exploited by the RL method is identified as a kind of spin-squeezing strategy that is adapted to the superradiant damping. (paper)
[en] Conditions of preparation of ionogenic membranes based on radiation-induced polymerization of styrene on low density polyethylene films (LDPE) were investigated. After optimization of the preparation conditions (radiation dose, concentration of the monomer solution, temperature of grafting), a series of samples with various degrees of grafting were prepared. Their sulfonation yielded cation-active membranes which were characterized by ion exchange capacity, concentration membrane potentials, specific and surface resistance, transport number of preferred ions, and permselectivity. (author). 2 figs., 16 refs
[en] Equipment for automated phase-space measurements was developed at the VERA Lab. The measurement of the beam's intensity distribution, as well as its relative position with respect to the reference orbit is performed at two locations along the beam line. The device basically consists of moveable slits and a beam profile monitor, which are both coordinated and controlled by an embedded controller. The operating system of the controller is based on Linux with real-time extension. It controls the movement of the slits and records the data synchronized to the movement of the beam profile monitor. The data is sent via TCP/IP to the data acquisition system of VERA where visualization takes place. The duration of one phase space measurement is less than 10 s, which allows for using the device during routine beam tuning