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[en] Large area deposition scaling up (from 30 x 30 to 50 x 60 and 60 x 100 m2) is reported within the frame of PV industrial development. Production-oriented deposition machine specifications are first described. The various technical solutions are discussed. The selected solutions such as plasma box and plasma etching were experimented in full size and illustrative results are presented. An NF3 etching process was developed and optimized in order to match the maintenance requirements of the production machines. Thanks to this cleaning process, a very low point defect density is demonstrated (<1/ft2). The thickness uniformity is shown to be better than ± 5%. Material quality is also uniform, this is demonstrated by a mapping of the microcrystalline transition. The proprietary plasma box concept is shown to reach very low impurity contamination levels in a classical vacuum machine, comparable to what is obtained in UHV technology
[en] Highlights: • New Hybrid system coupling photovoltaic and thermoelectric are studied. • Thermal transfer Method. • The effect of coupling types which are direct and indirect are examined. • The Heat Transfer is modeled in Hybrid system. • The indirect coupling significantly improves the overall efficiency. - Abstract: Advanced photovoltaic devices with a high performance/cost ratio is a major concern nowadays. In the present study, we investigate the energetic efficiency of a new concept based on an indirect (instead of direct) photovoltaic and thermoelectric coupling. Using state-of-the-art thermal transfer calculations, we have shown that such an indirect coupling is an interesting alternative to maximize solar energy exploitation. In our model, a concentrator is placed between photovoltaic and thermoelectric systems without any physical contact of the three components. Our major finding showed that the indirect coupling significantly improve the overall efficiency which is very promising for future photovoltaic developments.