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[en] This study addresses attitudes toward nuclear power in an international comparative setting for two distinct scenarios: In a period without an issue-related exogenous shock and in the wake of nuclear accidents. As it cannot be taken for granted that citizens attach increased importance to issues of energy policy, the theoretical discussion deals with various implications of relative issue saliences with a focus on varying politicization levels. The empirical analyses for periods without external events reveals profound context-specific patterns when it comes to the association between predispositions and the evaluation of nuclear power. Theoretical mechanisms that are often generally assumed in the literature are mainly found in economically advanced countries. Moreover, using the Fukushima accident as an example for a scenario with an exogenous shock, the analysis highlights that attitudinal and behavioral reactions have to be conceived of as a complex interaction of elite cues, individual predispositions and long-term dynamics in issue salience. Based on three case studies, the investigation suggests that an increase in issue salience is only present in the immediate aftermath of the Fukushima disaster, if at all. As context-specific politicization is relevant for a wide array of political issues - especially for less important topics - the study provides substantial and methodological implications beyond just the scope of the nuclear power issue.
[en] Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked multi-organ disorder of lysosomal metabolism with cardiac disease being the leading cause of death. Identifying early FD-specific pathologies is important in the context of maximum therapeutic benefit in these stages. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the value of quantitative cardiac T1 mapping as a potential disease-specific surrogate. 16 consecutive FD patients (9 female, 7 male; median age: 54 years, IQR 17) and 16 control patients (9 female, 7 male; median age: 52 years, IQR 20) were investigated at 1.5 Tesla. Native T1 mapping was performed using a modified look locker inversion recovery sequence (MOLLI) and native T1 times were measured within the septal myocardium at the midventricular short-axis section. Also functional parameters, left ventricular morphology, presence of late-gadolinium enhancement, cTnI- and Lyso-Gb3-Levels were evaluated. The median native septal T1 time for FD was 889.0 ms and 950.6 ms for controls (p < 0.003). LGE and positive cTnI values (0.26 ± 0.21) were present in 5 FD patients (31.25 %), and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was present in 4 FD patients (25.00 %). The 4 cTnI and 8 Lyso-Gb3 positive FD patients had significantly lower native T1 values (p < 0.05, respectively p < 0.01). Assuming a T1 cut-off value of 900 ms for the identification of increased cardiac lipid deposit, 9 patients with FD (56.25 %) had pathologic values (4 patients cTnI and 8 patients Lyso-Gb3 positive). Moreover, native septal T1 showed a good negative correlation to Lyso-Gb3 (r = -0.582; p = 0.018). A pathologic cardiac native T1 time obviously reflects cardiac involvement in the scope of FD at tissue level. In the future native T1 mapping as an imaging biomarker might allow identification of early stages of cardiac involvement in FD before morphological changes are obvious.
[en] Highlights: → A DEFC model considering the mixed potential formation at cathode and anode. → The low cell voltage at open circuit is due to the parasitic reaction of ethanol and oxygen. → Under load, only the parasitic oxidation of ethanol is significant. → Inhibiting the parasitic reactions can approximately double the current density. - Abstract: In this work a one-dimensional mathematical model of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) is presented. The electrochemical oxidation of ethanol in the catalyst layers is described by several reaction steps leading to surface coverage with adsorbed intermediates (CH3CO, CO, CH3 and OH) and to the final products acetaldehyde, acetic acid and CO2. A bifunctional reaction mechanism is assumed for the activation of water on a binary catalyst favouring the further oxidation of adsorbates blocking active catalyst sites. The chemical reactions are highly coupled with the charge and reactant transport. The model accounts for crossover of the reactants through the membrane leading to the phenomenon of cathode and anode mixed potentials due to the parasitic oxidation and reduction of ethanol and oxygen, respectively. Polarisation curves of a DEFC were recorded for various ethanol feed concentrations and were used as reference data for the simulation. Based on one set of model parameters the characteristic of electronic and protonic potential, the relative surface coverage and the parasitic current densities in the catalyst layers were studied.