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[en] The next generation technologies based on perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are targeted to develop a true low cost, low tech, widely deployable, easily manufactured and reliable photovoltaics. After the extremely fast evolution in the last few years on the laboratory-scale, PSCs power conversion efficiency (PCE) reached over 24%. However, the widespread use of PSCs requires addressing the stability and industrial scale production issues. Carbon based monolithic perovskite solar cells (mPSCs) are one of the most promising candidates for the commercialization of the PSCs. mPSCs possess a unique architectural design and pave an easy way to produce large area and cost-effective fabrication of the PSCs. In this article, recent progress in the field of mPSCs, challenges and strategies for their improvement are briefly reviewed. Also, we focus on the predominant implementations of recent techniques in the fabrication of the mPSCs to improve their performance. This review is intended to serve as a future direction guide for the scientists who are looking forward to developing more reliable, cost-effective and large area PSCs.
[en] In this paper, the impact of human migration on the dynamics of dengue epidemic has been discussed. The vector-host model considers two patches with different dengue serotype in each patch. The model considers the constant rate of migration in susceptible and recovered class from one patch to other. Recovered migrants from prior infection are exposed to secondary infection in the patch where different serotype is present. The basic reproduction number is computed and analyzed in terms of migration parameters. The model is analyzed for the existence and local stability of various equilibrium states in terms of migration parameters. The numerical simulations for the choice of relevant data from literature have been performed to verify analytical results and to further explore the dynamics of the system. The sensitivity analysis of basic reproduction number with respect to migration parameters is carried out. It is found that immigration in a patch increases the basic reproduction in respective patch and vice-versa. The basic reproduction number has been estimated for the two states of Brazil which verifies the occurrence of severe epidemic in one of the states of Brazil.