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[en] This report proposes a prospective vision of the ways of life of French household by 2030 and 2050, these ways of life being in compliance with scenarios presented by the ADEME within the frame of the national debate on energy transition which notably aims at dividing by four greenhouse gas emissions in France by 2050. Eight types of households are defined (couple with two children, mother alone with a child, elderly retired, rather young retired, father with two children in alternating custody, couple with three children) with different revenue levels (from modest to better off) and different living locations (medium city, suburban, urban, rural, city centre). Lifestyles or scenarios of life are rather precisely defined for these different households and their members. The objective is to compare energy profiles and greenhouse emissions, the impact of lifestyles on the level of direct and indirect consumptions and on the different types of used energies, to control the global result with aggregates. Consumptions are assessed for different aspects of life: food, appliances, housing, and mobility. These assessments are made for 2030 and for 2050
[en] This publication comments and discusses two studies performed with the Ademe's support on the impact of ambitious scenarios of energy transition for jobs. They respectively addressed the quantification of jobs of the Third Industrial Revolution in the Hauts-de-France region, and the quantification of social-economic impacts of the 'positive-energy region' (RePOS) in Occitanie. These both studies show that energy transition is an actual opportunity for job creations in territories. They also identify opportunities and ways of action in the support of the transition of professions weakened by a de-investment in the most non-renewable resource consuming activities towards developing jobs.
[en] The vision of smart grids and electricity systems elaborated in this road-map was drawn up on the basis of consultation and talks with a group of experts from industry (EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez), public research bodies (SUPELEC, Ecole des Mines, INES, universities), grid operators (ERDF, RTE), local authorities' groups (FNCCR) and ADEME. In the course of these working sessions the experts expressed their opinions intuitu personae. The views outlined in this road-map are not to be assimilated with the official positions of the corporations or research organisations to which the members of the group belong. The visions of smart electricity grids and systems integrating renewable energies in 2020 and in 2050 are in sharp contrast. This contrast was deliberately sought out, for two reasons: - to offer the most exhaustive panorama possible of imaginable futures; - to avoid neglecting a critical technological, organisational or socioeconomic bottleneck that might be associated with a possible scenario left out of the discussion. Accordingly, in seeking contrasting visions the group arrived at extreme representations and even caricatures of the future, which nonetheless help define the outer limit of possibilities, and the scope within which the actual situation will most likely be situated in 2020 and in 2050
[en] In 1997, France's General Planning Commission carried out a foresight exercise on the country's energy consumption and CO2 emissions for 2010 and 2020. Comparing the projections made more than 20 years ago with the actual trajectories observed in practice is a valuable exercise. We can see that the visions put forward by experts were confirmed or disproved to varying degrees depending on the sector in question. In addition, the comparison helps us to understand the conditions under which envisaged public policies can be successfully realised. The principal lesson learned for the current foresight exercises aimed at achieving carbon neutrality by 2050 is that the range of possibilities is extremely open, and should not be locked into a too conservative vision
[fr]En 1997, le Commissariat general du Plan realisait une prospective des consommations d'energie et des emissions de CO2 de la France aux horizons 2010 et 2020. Comparer les projections realisees il y a plus de vingt ans avec les trajectoires observees est riche d'enseignements. Au-dela des visions portees par les experts, qui se sont averees confortees ou infirmees selon les secteurs, ce diagnostic conduit a apprecier les conditions de concretisation des politiques publiques envisagees. La principale lecon a tirer pour les exercices de prospective en cours pour atteindre une neutralite carbone en 2050 est que le champ du possible est tres ouvert et ne doit pas s'enfermer dans une vision trop conservatrice
[en] At the beginning of 2018, the Call for Proposals 'Innovative solutions for off-grid access to energy' has led to the selection of 9 projects from companies and NGOs working on this topic. These projects, which are presented in this document, develop technological, organizational and business models innovations that are likely to ensure a decrease of the solutions' costs and a stronger involvement and appropriation by the concerned populations. Nowadays, direct off-grid access to energy can guarantee economic development through the implementation of reliable and lasting solutions, going beyond the lighting needs of households: irrigation for agriculture, energy services at the village level, water desalination... Micro-grids and nano-grids projects prove to be solutions that in some situations are more competitive and accessible than the extension of national grids.
[en] A first article outlines that technological innovation will be a key to face the expected increase of energy consumption (this consumption is expected to increase by a third by 2035). This innovation notably concerns the evolution of the energy mix, energy storage, the management of intermittency, grid stability. Energy saving and sobriety will also be required, and the issue of technology competitiveness is evoked. Experts belonging to different companies (GDF Suez, Total, EDF) and bodies (Ademe, Conseil Francais de l'Energie, Academy of technologies) express their opinion on the present energy mix and its possible evolutions, on measures to be implemented to reach European objectives, on the role of changes in energy use for energy transition, on energy transition funding, and on the difficult compromise between industrial, economic, societal and environmental issues
[en] We are counting very much on biofuels to help us solve energy and environmental problems. The impact - on the environment and on agricultural and food strategies - of using biofuels on a wide scale has been debated. Analyses of the life-cycle of biofuels have assessed this impact in each branch of industry. They show that, beyond the intrinsic performance of the processes for converting the biomass, the input necessary for growing plants and the reassignment of fields for growing them will probably radically modify the assessment of biofuel production in terms of greenhouse gas emissions
[en] One of the potential solutions for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector is to support development of plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles, in other words vehicles that can be recharged via the power grid. This road-map reviews the constraints, perspectives and research priorities under different scenarios for the development of plug-in vehicles. The success of these vehicles depends primarily on users' confidence that they have sufficient driving range, which in turn is guaranteed by a national strategy for the installation of charging infrastructure. Above and beyond this aspect, a far-reaching mutation of the automobile industry is underway, as the regulatory framework is renewed, with implications for the entire industry chain of production, and as a true public service electricity supply chain for mobility emerges, posing new constraints for power grids. (author)
[en] This publication proposes a synthesis of interventions of a seminar organised by the ADEME which notably addressed the content of an ADEME study on the possibility to reach an energy mix made of 100 per cent of renewable energies, and the critics made even before the publication of this study. A first contribution recalls the objectives, approach, and methodology adopted for this study, and consultants hired to perform it. It also recalls the main hypotheses which related to estimated demand, interconnection, sources of renewable energy, cost of technologies, and variations. The obtained results are commented in terms of possible mixes (15 possible mixes), of relationship between electricity cost and proportion of renewable energies, necessity of flexibility and storage, and complementarity between renewable energies. A second contribution (made by a member of 'Sauvons le Climat' which criticised the ADEME study) proposes an overview of critics: left out criteria, unrealistic consumption predictions, a not very convincing management of intermittency, an increased risk of load-shedding and black-out, and under-assessed costs. A third contribution proposes reflections on technological and organisational innovation which could result in an energy mix with a major renewable component, but with a remaining nuclear component. Debates are reported which addressed some issues such as batteries versus chemical storage, from a model to a road-map, the actualisation cost, the negative price of electricity, the German example, a global approach to the energy mix
[en] A first article comments how the race to achieve energy efficiency is driving the emergence of new technologies in transportation and construction (hybrid cars, phase change material, digital mock-ups, and so on). The example of the AGV is evoked, a new version of the TGV developed by Alstom which will run faster and consume less energy. A second article outlines that, due to the support from public authorities and to an increased awareness of energy costs and environmental challenges, the energy savings market is booming. Then, in an interview, a sociologist of the ADEME comments the difficulty of changing habits in terms of energy savings