Results 1 - 10 of 17
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[en] An autoradiography system prototype (BETAview) is presented; it is aimed at quantitative dynamic analysis of radioactive labelled biological samples. The system is based on a GaAs pixel array detector, bump-bonded to a low threshold and single particle counting electronics (Medipix). The detector has an area of about 1 cm2, segmented in 64x64 square pixels, 200 μm thick. Studies with gamma and beta emitters (210Pb, 241Am, 152Eu, 32P, 90Sr and 14C) allowed to identify optimal detector bias, to estimate detection efficiency and to measure system counting linearity. Two experiments showed the system capability to select radionuclides with different beta spectra and to perform a real time monitoring of biological phenomena
[en] We are designing and building a compact gamma camera using a semiconductor hybrid pixel detector, for Tc-99m 140-keV imaging of sentinel lymph nodes during radio-guided surgery. In order to perform preliminary evaluations on the spatial resolution attainable with different collimators, we used the Medipix1 readout chip, bump-bonded to a silicon pixel detector (300 μm thick, 64x64 pixels, 170 μm pixel pitch, 1% detection efficiency at 140 keV). In this work we tested its performance with a knife-edge 0.35 mm pinhole collimator. Imaging results obtained with a 122 keV Co-57 gamma source show an on-axis system spatial resolution of 0.8 mm (resp. 1.8 mm) at 10 mm (resp. 40 mm) from the collimator face. The collimator efficiency was 2x10-4 at 10 mm, reducing to 3x10-5 at 40 mm from the collimator face. This gamma imaging system is compact, can be made hand-held and provides live-time imaging. It will have an acceptable detection efficiency when the Medipix2 chip will be available, in the next future, bonded to a CdTe pixel detector
[en] We present a digital autoradiography (DAR) system, named BETAview, based on semiconductor pixel detectors and a single particle counting chip, for quantitative analysis of β-emitting radioactive tracers in biological samples. The system is able to perform a real time monitoring of time-dependent biological phenomena. BETAview could be equipped either with GaAs or with Si semiconductor pixellated detectors. In this paper, we describe the results obtained with an assembly based on a Si detector, 300 μm thick, segmented into 64x64 170 μm size square pixels. The detector is bump-bonded to the low threshold, single particle counting chip named Medipix1, developed by a CERN-based European collaboration. The sensitive area is about 1 cm2. Studies of background noise and detection efficiency have been performed. Moreover, time-resolved cellular uptake studies with radiolabelled molecules have been monitored. Specifically, we have followed in vivo and in real time, the [14C]L-leucine amino acid uptake by eggs of Octopus vulgaris confirming the preliminary results of a previous paper. This opens the field of biomolecular kynetic studies with this new class of semiconductor DAR systems, whose evolution (using the Medipix2 chip, 256x256 pixels, 55 μm pixel size) is soon to come
[en] We present an autoradiography system (BETAview) for a quantitative analysis of radioactive markers in biological samples; this system is also able to monitor a dynamic process. It is based on a solid-state pixel array detector, bump bonded to low threshold, integrated electronics developed for medical applications (Medipix). The present assembly is equipped with a 200 μm thick GaAs square detector, about 1 cm side, segmented into 64x64 170-μm size square pixels; simulation and experimental studies show good linearity and high sensitivity to β sources. Imaging tests with β sources of medical and biological interest such as 14C, 35S, 32P are reported
[en] We are investigating the feasibility of an intraoperative imaging probe for lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m tracer, for sentinel node radioguided surgery, using the Medipix series of hybrid detectors coupled to a collimator. These detectors are pixelated semiconductor detectors bump-bonded to the Medipix1 photon counting read-out chip (64x64 pixel, 170 μm pitch) or to the Medipix2 chip (256x256 pixel, 55 μm pitch), developed by the European Medipix collaboration. The pixel detector we plan to use in the final version of the probe is a semi-insulating GaAs detector or a 1-2 mm thick CdZnTe detector. For the preliminary tests presented here, we used 300-μm thick silicon detectors, hybridized via bump-bonding to the Medipix1 chip. We used a tungsten parallel-hole collimator (7 mm thick, matrix array of 64x64 100 μm circular holes with 170 μm pitch), and a 22, 60 and 122 keV point-like (1 mm diameter) radioactive sources, placed at various distances from the detector. These tests were conducted in order to investigate the general feasibility of this imaging probe and its resolving power. Measurements show the high resolution but low efficiency performance of the detector-collimator set, which is able to image the 122 keV source with <1 mm FWHM resolution
[en] The development of automatic scanning systems was a fundamental issue for large scale neutrino detectors exploiting nuclear emulsions as particle trackers. Such systems speed up significantly the event analysis in emulsion, allowing the feasibility of experiments with unprecedented statistics. In the early 1990s, R and D programs were carried out by Japanese and European laboratories leading to automatic scanning systems more and more efficient. The recent progress in the technology of digital signal processing and of image acquisition allows the fulfillment of new systems with higher performances. In this paper we report the description and the performance of a new generation scanning system able to operate at the record speed of 84 cm2/hour and based on the Large Angle Scanning System for OPERA (LASSO) software infrastructure developed by the Naples scanning group. Such improvement, reduces the scanning time by a factor 4 with respect to the available systems, allowing the readout of huge amount of nuclear emulsions in reasonable time. This opens new perspectives for the employment of such detectors in a wider variety of applications.
[en] Hadron radiotherapy is a powerful technique for the treatment of deep-seated tumours. The physical dose distribution of hadron beams is characterized by a small dose delivered in the entrance channel and a large dose in the Bragg peak area. Fragmentation of the incident particles and struck nuclei occurs along the hadron path. Knowledge of the fragment energies and angular distributions is crucial for the validation of the models used in treatment planning systems. We report on large angle fragmentation measurements of a 400 MeV/n 12C beam impinging on a composite target at the GSI laboratory in Germany. The detector was made of 300 micron thick nuclear emulsion films, with sub-micrometric spatial resolution and large angle track detection capability, interleaved with passive material. Thanks to newly developed techniques in the automated scanning of emulsions it was possible to extend the angular range of detected particles. This resulted in the first measurement of the angular and momentum spectrum for fragments emitted in the range from 34o to 81o.
[en] Nuclear emulsions have been widely used in particle physics to identify new particles through the observation of their decays thanks to their unique spatial resolution. Nevertheless, before the advent of automatic scanning systems, the emulsion analysis was very demanding in terms of well trained manpower. Due to this reason, they were gradually replaced by electronic detectors, until the '90s, when automatic microscopes started to be developed in Japan and in Europe. Automatic scanning was essential to conceive large scale emulsion-based neutrino experiments like CHORUS, DONUT and OPERA. Standard scanning systems have been initially designed to recognize tracks within a limited angular acceptance (θ ∼< 30°) where θ is the track angle with respect to a line perpendicular to the emulsion plane. In this paper we describe the implementation of a novel fast automatic scanning system aimed at extending the track recognition to the full angular range and improving the present scanning speed. Indeed, nuclear emulsions do not have any intrinsic limit to detect particle direction. Such improvement opens new perspectives to use nuclear emulsions in several fields in addition to large scale neutrino experiments, like muon radiography, medical applications and dark matter directional detection
[en] This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications
[en] We are implementing an X-ray breast Computed Tomography (CT) system on the gantry of a dedicated single photon emission tomography system for breast Tc-99 imaging. For the breast CT system we investigated the relevance of the beam hardening artifact. We studied the use of a single photon counting silicon pixel detector (0.3 mm thick, 256x256 pixel, 55μm pitch, bump-bonded to the Medipix2 photon counting readout chip) as detector unit in our X-ray CT system. We evaluated the beam hardening 'cupping' artifact using homogeneous PMMA slabs and phantoms up to 14 cm in diameter, used as uncompressed breast tissue phantoms, imaged with a tungsten anode tube at 80 kVp with 4.2 mm Al filtration. For beam hardening evaluation we used a bimodal energy model. The CT data show a 'cupping' artifact going from 4% (4-cm thick material) to 18% (14-cm thick material). This huge artifacts is influenced by the low detection efficiency and the charge sharing effect of the silicon pixel detector