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[en] This chapter discusses some of the main effects of the interaction of planets with remnant planetesimal disks, after the disappearance of the gas. It focuses on planet migration and its possible outcomes. In particular, we discuss the possibility that the migration of the planets leads them into an unstable configuration which changes drastically the structure of the system. The late heavy bombardment (LHB) of the terrestrial planets, occurring 650 Myr after planet formation, is a strong indication that this kind of evolution occurred in our solar system. Other stars show evidence of intense comet showers, which may indicate that LHB-analogs are ongoing in those systems at the current time
[en] Observations indicate that the gaseous circumstellar disks around young stars vary significantly in size, ranging from tens to thousands of AU. Models of planet formation depend critically upon the properties of these primordial disks, yet in general it is impossible to connect an existing planetary system with an observed disk. We present a method by which we can constrain the size of our own protosolar nebula using the properties of the small body reservoirs in the solar system. In standard planet formation theory, after Jupiter and Saturn formed they scattered a significant number of remnant planetesimals into highly eccentric orbits. In this paper, we show that if there had been a massive, extended protoplanetary disk at that time, then the disk would have excited Kozai oscillations in some of the scattered objects, driving them into high-inclination (i ∼> 50°), low-eccentricity orbits (q ∼> 30 AU). The dissipation of the gaseous disk would strand a subset of objects in these high-inclination orbits; orbits that are stable on Gyr timescales. To date, surveys have not detected any Kuiper-belt objects with orbits consistent with this dynamical mechanism. Using these non-detections by the Deep Ecliptic Survey and the Palomar Distant Solar System Survey we are able to rule out an extended gaseous protoplanetary disk (RD ∼> 80 AU) in our solar system at the time of Jupiter's formation. Future deep all sky surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will allow us to further constrain the size of the protoplanetary disk.
[en] In the core-accretion model, the nominal runaway gas-accretion phase brings most planets to multiple Jupiter masses. However, known giant planets are predominantly Jupiter mass bodies. Obtaining longer timescales for gas accretion may require using realistic equations of states, or accounting for the dynamics of the circumplanetary disk (CPD) in the low-viscosity regime, or both. Here we explore the second way by using global, three-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamical simulations with eight levels of nested grids around the planet. In our simulations, the vertical inflow from the circumstellar disk (CSD) to the CPD determines the shape of the CPD and its accretion rate. Even without a prescribed viscosity, Jupiter's mass-doubling time is ∼104 yr, assuming the planet at 5.2 AU and a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula. However, we show that this high accretion rate is due to resolution-dependent numerical viscosity. Furthermore, we consider the scenario of a layered CSD, viscous only in its surface layer, and an inviscid CPD. We identify two planet-accretion mechanisms that are independent of the viscosity in the CPD: (1) the polar inflow—defined as a part of the vertical inflow with a centrifugal radius smaller than two Jupiter radii and (2) the torque exerted by the star on the CPD. In the limit of zero effective viscosity, these two mechanisms would produce an accretion rate 40 times smaller than in the simulation.
[en] Examining the albedo distribution of the near-Earth object (NEO) population allows for a better understanding of the relationship between absolute (H) magnitude and size, which impacts calculations of the size frequency distribution and impact hazards. Examining NEO albedos also sheds light on the differences between the NEO and Main Belt populations. We combine albedo results from the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer Exploration Science program with taxonomic classifications from the literature, publicly available data sets, and new observations from our concurrent spectral survey to derive the average albedos for C-, D-, Q-, S-, V-, and X-complex NEOs. Using a sample size of 118 NEOs, we calculate average albedos of 0.29+0.05-0.04, 0.26+0.04-0.03, and 0.42+0.13-0.11 for the Q-, S-, and V-complexes, respectively. The averages for the C- and D-complexes are 0.13+0.06-0.05 and 0.02+0.02-0.01, but these averages are based on a small number of objects (five and two, respectively) and will improve with additional observations. We use albedos to assign X-complex asteroids to one of the E-, M-, or P-types. Our results demonstrate that the average albedos for the C-, S-, V-, and X-complexes are higher for NEOs than the corresponding averages observed in the Main Belt.