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[en] The national waste treatment centre at the Nuclear Energy Unit (N.E.U.) at Bangi was formed to manage all the radioactive wastes being produced in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to determine the condition of radioactive wastes being produced by radioisotope users and other relevant services that can be offered by N.E.U. to outside related agencies. Questionaires were sent to various government and private agencies which are expected to handle radioactive materials. The results show that most of the private agencies use radioactive sealed source while the government agencies use radioactive liquid and radioactive sealed source. The sealed source and liquid radioactive are mostly used for non-destructive testing and tracer studies, respectively. Radioactive gases are used mostly in electronic industries. An approximate value rate of volume and weight of liquid and solid wastes, respectively, produced per month was determined. Some important proposals were concluded in this study to improve the management of radioactive wastes in Malaysia. (author)
[en] Naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere. Besides we exposed to it every day. It found in our food, body, places we live, workplaces and in product we used. NORM elements such as uranium, radium and radon are dissolved in very low concentrations during normal reaction which is between water and rock. Uncontrolled work activitities involving NORM can lead to unwanted exposure and also risk to environment and human health. The general principles of protection against the hazard or ionizing radiation are by improved the best working practices at NORM working areas.
[en] This chapter covers on industries that related to Naturally Occuring Radioactive Material (NORM) such as ore and mineral mining, ore melting and also natural gas. In this topic, the authors explained on ore processing, products of mineral processing industry which consist thorium, uranium and non radioactive material. The uranium and thorium sources will only increase if there is more ore and mineral which contain reasonable radioactive materials concentration been procesed.
[en] Mineral and ore usually contain uranium and thorium series. This material able to produce such a strong penetration of gamma radiation. Therefore it is compulsory for the workers which involved in the radiation field use the Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD). This is because the TLD badges are used to detect radiation at levels that can be harmful to human. Besides of that the workers also need to wear the the right protective clothing to reduces the radiation exposure.
[en] Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM) originates in the earth crust. We come in contact with NORM everyday and it also become a part of our lives. There is also industries that processing the NORM materials to develop the country technology and economy. Therefore, it is important for us to learn and know some issues which related to NORM.
[en] NORM is the acronym for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. Besides, it is potentially includes all radioactive elements found in the environment. There is a lot of industries processing the material which contain NORM for the technological and economical progress. Long-lived radioactive elements which is for example like uranium, thorium and potassium and any of their decay products, such as radium and radon are examples of NORM. Therefore, it is important for the public to know about it. This book also deliver an understanding and awareness to the public as welll to those who involve in NORM technical field. The law, policies and safe management of radioactive wastes also been discussed by the authors.
[en] Interestingly, in this chapter. the authors discussed about radionuclied, radioactive half life, ionizing radiation and also radiation doses. Besides of the authors also explained on the uses of radiation in medicine industry which the most well known use is X-ray machine. There are numerous devices used to measure ionizing radiation. For example is such as thermoluminescent dosimeter or TLD which measuring the intensity of visible light emmited from a crystal in the detector when the crystal is heated. Meanwhile, survey meters are portable radiation detection used to check personal, equipment and facilities.
[en] There is four components of environment. First one is lithosphere which related to land. Second is hydrosphere which is refering to water. Next component is atmosphere which is about air. For the last compenent is biosphere which took flora, fauna and microbes as the examples of it.
[en] The effect of sample density in the determination of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry was studied using two multinuclides standard sources of different densities. The self-absorption corrections due to differences sample matrix densities were estimated. The corrections were used in the analysis of food and soil samples having packing densities between 0.2 - 106 g/ml. (Author)