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[en] The concept of intelligent electricity grids, which primarily involves the integration of new information and communication technologies with power transmission lines and distribution cables, is being actively explored in the European Union and the United States. Both developments share common technological developmental goals but also differ distinctly towards the role of distributed generation for their future electrical energy security. This paper looks at options that could find relevance to New Zealand (NZ), in the context of its aspiration of achieving 90% renewable energy electricity generation portfolio by 2025. It also identifies developments in technical standardization and industry investments that facilitate a pathway towards an intelligent or smart grid development for NZ. Some areas where policy can support research in NZ being a 'fast adapter' to future grid development are also listed. This paper will help policy makers quickly review developments surrounding SmartGrid and also identify its potential to support NZ Energy Strategy in the electricity infrastructure. This paper will also help researchers and power system stakeholders for identifying international standardization, projects and potential partners in the area of future grid technologies.
[en] Highlights: • Level of interest towards EE varies greatly with countries’ renewable energy mix. • Energy efficiency is important even for renewable-rich countries. • Iceland, Norway and New Zealand are top-three renewable-rich OECD countries. • Policies need to be synchronized with technological advancements. - Abstract: The relevance of energy efficiency policy measures for renewable-rich countries could be different from those countries that have a limited share of renewables in their electricity generation mix, and are therefore likely to focus on low-carbon energy generation policies. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the energy efficiency initiatives of the three highest renewable-rich OECD countries, namely: Iceland, Norway and New Zealand. The paper then focuses on a comprehensive review of New Zealand's energy efficiency policies since a formal “Energy Efficiency and Conservation Act” came into force. This paper then highlights the future challenges for New Zealand and offers some policy recommendations, which may also be applicable for other renewable-rich countries.
[en] Research highlights: → Phase change material (PCM) application for space heating has been implemented and assessed for built environment. → Real-Time Pricing (RTP) is assessed as tool to implement Demand Side Management programs effectively. → Two buildings, with and without PCM, have been compared for space heating using RTP in functional electricity market. → PCM found to offer peak load shifting, energy conservation, and reduction in price of electricity. -- Abstract: This paper assesses impact of using phase change materials (PCM) in buildings to leverage its thermal energy storage capability. The emphasis is from an electricity demand side perspective with case studies that incorporates wholesale electricity market data of New Zealand. The results presented in this paper show that for space heating application significant advantages could be obtained using PCM built structures. These positive impacts include peak load shifting, energy conservation and reduction in peak demand for network line companies and potential reduction in electricity consumption and savings for residential customers. This paper uses a testing facility that consists of two identically designed and shaped offices built at Tamaki Campus location of the University of Auckland, New Zealand. The walls and ceilings of one office are finished with ordinary gypsum boards while the interior of the other office is finished with PCM impregnated gypsum boards. Controlled heating facility is provided in both the offices for maintaining temperature within the range of human comfort. This facility is equipped with advanced data acquisition equipment for data monitoring and archiving both locally within the offices and also remotely. Through actual observations and analysis this paper demonstrates two major impacts of DSM. First, the application of phase change material (PCM) in building environment enabling efficient thermal storage to achieve some reduction in the overall electrical energy consumption. Second, assessment of peak load shifting achieved for space heating in a PCM building during a typical winter period in New Zealand.