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[en] The relationship between some kinds of substitutions and admissible sequences is studied. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the admissibility of the sequences generated by non-constant length substitution and constant length substitution are investigated respectively
[en] Highlights: • There is a significant difference in faecal miRNA between healthy subjects and IBD. • Faecal miRNAs might indicate the severity of IBD activity and prognosis. • Faecal miRNAs affect the proliferative activities of the gut microbiota. Reasons underlying the individual differences in the clinical manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and the mechanism by which the host screens the intestinal microbiota remain unclear. The presence of miRNA in faeces might be a potential clue into differences in gut microbiota among these patients. In this study, we analysed the differences in miRNA levels in faecal samples from 117 patients diagnosed with IBD. There was a significant difference in faecal miRNAs between healthy subjects and those with inactive IBD. Further analysis showed that some miRNAs might indicate the severity of IBD activity and prognosis. Sequencing analysis of the 16S RNA V4 region in faecal microbiota in these IBD patients revealed significant differences in the phylogenetic architecture between subjects with active or inactive IBD and between IBD patients and healthy subjects. Finally, in vitro studies showed that these differentially expressed miRNAs have different effects on the proliferative activity of the intestinal microorganisms Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and segmental filamentous bacteria (SFB). We observed the dynamic uptake of miRNA by these bacteria using flow cytometry. This study reveals a potential link between faecal miRNA, intestinal microbiota, IBD activity and prognosis.
[en] The far-field superlens based on surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) has shown great application potential, but it is difficult and time-consuming to reconstruct the far-field image. We derive a near-field optical transfer function (NOTF) of a silver slab and analyse its validity so that accurate information of nano-scale object in the near-field can be computed rapidly. The NOTF is helpful not only for analysing the super-resolution imaging process in far-field, but also for providing a track to describe the transmission of optical information from near-field to far-field by using the optical transfer functions theory only
[en] Highlights: • CTLA-4 deficiency leads to spontaneous humoural autoimmune intestinal injury. • CTLA-4 deficiency leads to differentiation obstacles in Tfr cells. • A Tfr shortage leads to non-specific humoural immunity enhancement. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a co-inhibitory molecule expressed by T cells and is required for immune regulation and inflammation prevention. In clinical patients, the CTLA-4 mutation causes spontaneous immune-related early-onset Crohn's disease; however, its potential mechanism is still unknown. In the current study, we found that defects in CTLA-4 in CD4 cells lead to limited differentiation of T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells and relatively increased T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and spontaneous B cell germinal centres (GCs) responses that trigger the accumulation of autoantibodies in intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, the deficiency of Tfr cells caused by defects in CTLA-4 causes these cells to lose their function of inhibiting the non-specific immune response produced during the specific humoural immune response induced by MCMV (mouse cytomegalovirus), resulting in acute intestinal injury and death in mice. The lack of Tfr cells may be responsible for the immunosuppressive disorder of inflammatory bowel disease caused by CTLA-4 deficiency. In conclusion, we verified that CTLA-4 may be required for Tfr cell differentiation and production. Tfr cells inhibit B cell responses and prevent humoural autoimmune-mediated intestinal damage by regulating Tfh-dependent GC responses.