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[en] Solar radiation data are crucial for the design and evaluation of solar energy systems, climatic studies, water resources management, estimating crop productivity, etc. As so, for locations where direct measurements are not available, reliable models may be developed to estimate solar radiation from more readily available data. In this study, two artificial intelligence (AI)-based models including artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, three temperature-based empirical models including Meza–Varas, Hargreaves–Samani, and Chen, and a conventional multi-linear regression (MLR) model were employed for multi-region daily global solar radiation estimation for Iraq. To ensure appropriate selection of input variables, sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the dominant parameters. Finally, two ensemble approaches, neural average ensemble and simple average ensemble, were applied to improve the performance of the single models. For this purpose, daily meteorological data of maximum temperature , minimum temperature , mean temperature , relative humidity , and wind speed were obtained from January 2006 to December 2016 from four major cities in Iraq representing, north, west, south, and east regions. The results revealed that temperatures and relative humidity are the dominant parameters. While temperature-based empirical models and MLR model could be employed to achieve reliable results, AI-based models are superior in performance to other models. Also promising improvement in daily global solar radiation modeling could be achieved by model ensemble. The results of this study affirmed that the provided ensemble approaches can increase the performance of single models up to 19.19%, 7.59%, and 16.81% in training, validation, and testing steps, respectively.
[en] In this paper, artificial neural network (ANN) was used for statistically downscale the outputs of general circulation models (GCMs) to assess future changes of precipitation and mean temperature in Tabriz synoptic station at north-west of Iran. Since one of the significant subjects in statistical downscaling of GCMs is to select the most dominant large scale climate variables (predictors) among huge number of potential predictors, the predictors screening methods including decision tree, mutual information (MI) and correlation coefficient (CC) were used to statistically downscale mean monthly precipitation and temperature. Three GCMs were used, including Can-ESM2 and BNU-ESM from IPCC AR5 models and CGCM3 from IPCC AR4 models. The results of downscaling in the base period (1951–2000) indicated that among feature extraction methods decision tree had superiority to MI and CC techniques. Therefore, the future projection of precipitation and mean temperature during 2020–2060 was implemented using ANN-based simulation according to the most efficient downscaling model (i.e., decision tree-based calibration). Different results according to different GCMs and scenarios were obtained for precipitation projection. In this way, the Can-ESM2 model under RCP8.5 showed 29.78% decrease in annual precipitation and CGCM3 model under B1 indicated 1.06% increase of annual precipitation. Temperature projection outcomes denoted that annual mean temperature will increase over the region and the most increase in mean temperature was determined by BNU-ESM model under RCP8.5.
[en] This paper investigates monthly, seasonal, and annual trends in rainfall, streamflow, temperature, and humidity amounts at Urmia lake (UL) basin and analyzes the interaction between these variables and UL’s water level fluctuation during the 1971–2013 period. Two new methods including nonparametric hybrid wavelet Mann–Kendall test and Şen’s methodology have been used to determine potential trends in the variables and their dominant periods. The results showed significant decreasing trends in the water level and streamflow series, moderate decreasing trend in the rainfall and relative humidity series, and increasing trends in the observed temperature data. The 8- , 12-month, and 2-year periods were detected as the dominant periods of the variables in monthly, seasonal, and annual timescales, respectively. The results from the interaction analysis revealed that the main factor influencing the water level at UL is decreasing trend in the streamflow series. Both the monthly series of UL’s water level and the streamflow series of the stations indicated two start points of significant decreasing trend in 1973 and 1998. Furthermore, a comparative analysis among the applied methods indicated a good agreement between the results of hybrid wavelet Mann–Kendall test and Şen’s trend analyzing method.
[en] The target of the current paper was to examine the performance of three Markovian and seasonal based artificial neural network (ANN) models for one-step ahead and three-step ahead prediction of monthly precipitation which is the most important parameter of any hydrological study. The models proposed here are feed forward neural network (FFNN, as a classic ANN-based models), Wavelet-ANN (WANN, as a hybrid model), and Emotional-ANN (EANN, as a modern generation of ANN-based models). The models were used to precipitation prediction of seven stations located in the Northern Cyprus. Two scenarios were examined each having specific inputs set. The scenario 1 was developed for predicting each station’s precipitation through its own data at previous time steps, while in scenario 2, the central station’s data were also imposed into the models in addition to each station’s data, as exogenous inputs. The obtained results showed the better performance of the EANN model in comparison with other models (FFNN and WANN) especially in three-step ahead prediction. The superiorities of the EANN model over other models are due to its ability in dealing with error magnification in multi-step ahead prediction. Also, the results indicated that the performance of the scenario 2 was better than scenario 1, showing improvement of modeling efficiency up to 17% and 26% in calibration and verification steps, respectively.