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[en] With an installed power of around 12,000 MW at the end of December 2016, France ranks 4 in Europe, with high ambitions: the French Multi-year Energy Programme, formalized at the end of 2016 provides, in a low estimate, a doubling of the capacity installed by 2023, confirming the major role held by wind power in France's strategy of energy transition. Over the past 15 years, ADEME has conducted several studies aimed at assessing the socio-economic and environmental impacts of the wind turbine sector, the main results of which are recalled here. The cost/benefit analysis of the wind power support policy shows that the benefits of wind power for the community exceed the direct costs (purchase obligation and network costs) and indirect costs (research, development and innovation costs). The development of wind power has thus prevented the emission of 9.6 Mt CO2eq in 2014 (or 9 pc of the national effort) and the trade balance has been excessive since 2010 by adding fuel import savings (approximately 800 million euros/year). Life cycle analysis shows that the environmental performance of the French wind power fleet is good. The emission rate of the park is 12.7 g CO2 eq/kWh, well lower than that of the French mix (estimated at 79 g CO2/kWh (2011)). The terrestrial wind power is particularly efficient: the total energy consumed to realize the entire life cycle of each wind turbine corresponds to about 12 months of production (energy return time of 12 months). With regard to biodiversity, ADEME has been supporting programmes aimed at improving knowledge about the impacts of wind power for more than ten years and participating in a gradual evolution of the consideration of environmental issues in regulations. ADEME also encourages innovation by accompanying projects to prevent and reduce the impacts of wind turbines on biodiversity
[fr]Avec une puissance installee de l'ordre de 12000 MW a fin decembre 2016, la France se situe au 4eme rang europeen. Et les ambitions sont elevees: la Programmation Pluriannuelle de l'Energie (PPE) officialisee fin 2016 prevoit, en estimation basse, un doublement de la capacite installee d'ici a 2023, confortant le role majeur tenu par l'eolien dans la strategie hexagonale de transition energetique. L'ADEME a, durant ces 15 dernieres annees, mene plusieurs etudes visant a evaluer les impacts socio-economiques et environnementaux de la filiere eolienne dont les principaux resultats sont rappeles ici. L'analyse cout/benefices de la politique de soutien a l'eolien montre que les benefices de l'eolien pour la collectivite depassent les couts directs (obligation d'achat et couts de reseau) et indirects (cout de recherche, developpement et innovation). Le developpement de l'eolien a ainsi permis d'eviter l'emission de 9,6 Mt CO2eq en 2014 (soit 9 pc de l'effort national) et la balance commerciale est excedentaire depuis 2010 en ajoutant les economies d'importation de combustible (environ 800 Mt/an). L'analyse du cycle de vie (ACV) montre que les performances environnementales du parc eolien francais sont bonnes. Le taux d'emission du parc, en particulier, est de 12,7 g CO2 eq/kWh, bien inferieur a celui du mix francais, estime a 79 g CO2/kWh (annee de reference 2011). L'eolien terrestre est particulierement efficient: l'energie totale consommee pour realiser l'ensemble du cycle de vie de chaque eolienne correspond environ a 12 mois de production (temps de retour energetique de 12 mois). En ce qui concerne la biodiversite, l'ADEME soutient depuis plus de dix ans des programmes visant a ameliorer les connaissances sur les impacts de l'eolien et participant a une evolution progressive de la prise en compte des enjeux environnementaux dans la reglementation. L'ADEME encourage egalement l'innovation en accompagnant des projets visant a eviter et reduire les impacts des eoliennes sur la biodiversite. Ce travail doit se poursuivre dans l'avenir afin d'assurer une bonne coherence entre la politique de developpement de l'energie eolienne et celle consistant a stopper la perte de biodiversite. (auteur)
[en] From the point of view of cost control, what would be the optimal change in the electricity mix from 2020 to 2060 in order to ensure the right balance between hourly supply and demand? That is the question addressed by the ADEME (the French energy and environment agency) in work carried out in 2017 and 2018, based on an optimisation model that would minimise the total cost of the system over several decades. They show that, over the relevant time horizon, a number of major international trends will combine to significantly structure the national mix: a widespread reduction in the cost of renewables, an increase in inter-connectivity, and technological solutions for managing use. By anticipating these developments, it will be possible to raise public awareness and maximise the resulting benefits for the entire country
[fr]Sous l'angle de la maitrise des couts de revient, quelle serait la trajectoire optimale d'evolution du mix electrique, entre 2020 et 2060, assurant l'equilibre offre/demande horaire? C'est a cette question que l'ADEME a souhaite repondre par des travaux menes en 2017 et 2018, fondes sur un modele d'optimisation capable de minimiser le cout total du systeme sur plusieurs decennies. Ils montrent qu'a cet horizon de temps, certaines tendances majeures, d'ampleur internationale, se conjugueront pour structurer significativement les mix nationaux: baisse generalisee des couts des EnR, interconnexions renforcees et solutions technologiques de pilotabilite des usages. Anticiper ces evolutions permet d'eclairer le debat public pour mieux les accompagner et en maximiser les benefices pour la collectivite nationale
[en] After having mentioned some key results regarding the role of renewable energies on the long term, the role of nuclear energy on the long term, the whole cost of electricity, the potential of power-to-X and of high exports, a market model, and the grid stability, this study aims at shedding a light on strategic choices for the evolution of the French electric power system through an analysis the results of an economic optimisation of the different renewable energy sectors integrated into the French electric power system. Illustrated by many graphs and tables, it also aims at assessing the whole cost of different contrasted evolutions of the French power system between 2020 and 2060. The comparison of different pathways is used to determine the optimal deployment rate of new installations, to determine the role of renewable energies in the electrical mix (while taking storage and flexibility costs into account), to determine costs of all pathways, to determine evolutions of market prices with respect to different possible scenarios (nuclear share, European context) and revenues obtained by different production means, to determine the impacts of demand level in France on the production fleet, and to determine the export level for each considered pathway.
[en] This report brings some additional elements on three main stakes related to the development of an important share of renewable within the French electric power mix. It first analyses flexibility needs and providing in France in 2020 and in 2050: strong increase of daily and monthly flexibility needs, flexibilities provided by the whole system. Then, it addresses market prices and global costs for the electric power system: gross prices increasing at a more or less high rate according to scenarios with a high variability related to meteorological conditions, analysis of global costs for the French system. It also analyses trajectories from the point of view of electricity export opportunities from France to the neighbouring countries. This study notably revisits some hypotheses and fundamental aspects of the electric power market, and the way they impact published results (notably the demand partial steering and the role of interconnections) within the frame of an economic optimization.
[en] Whereas the French law related to energy transition for a green growth defined the objective of energy self-sufficiency in overseas territories by 2030 (i.e. a higher objective than for the metropolitan mainland), this report proposes a synthesis and comparative analysis of studies performed for 6 territories (Mayotte, Reunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Guyana by 2030, and Corsica by 2050). The main lessons learned from these studies are highlighted: possibility of a 100 pc renewable electricity mix, issue of energy management, high reduction of the importance of Diesel plants, significant share of varying wind and photovoltaic energies, decrease of the costs of the produced energy, electricity systems appeared to be steady. It discusses the context and conditions to reach the defined objectives. It presents the methodology and main hypotheses of the performed studies: elaboration of a data set, optimisation of trajectories of evolution of the electricity mix for 5 scenarios, ex-post economic analysis, modelling of the 5 scenarios for each territory. Results are globally presented (an expected decrease of global costs of electricity, an electricity system which could remain steady in front of significant incidents), and the limitations and perspectives of the study are discussed. Results are then presented for the six different territories (data in 2017 and 2030, renewable potentials, mix analysis for each scenario, economic analysis of scenarios, focus on a specific scenario).
[fr]La loi relative a la transition energetique pour la croissance verte (LTECV) a fixe comme objectif de parvenir a l'autonomie energetique dans les departements et regions d'outre-mer (DROM) a l'horizon 2030. La Collectivite Territoriale de Corse vise ce meme objectif pour 2050. L'ADEME a souhaite mener une etude pour evaluer les implications techniques, organisationnelles et economiques qu'aurait un mix electrique tres fo tement renouvelable dans ces territoires, pour la majorite insulaires (Mayotte, La Reunion, la Guadeloupe, la Martinique, la Guyane et la Corse). Le vecteur electrique, permettant une production locale basee sur les energies renouvelables, et adapte a de multiples usages en substitution a des energies fossiles importees, pourrait jouer un role preponderant pour atteindre cet objectif ambitieux d'autonomie energetique. A l'heure de la revision des Programmations Pluriannuelles de l'Energie des ZNI (PPE), cette etude se veut un outil d'aide pour les instances decisionnelles afin de nourrir la reflexion des parties prenantes et ouvrir le champ des possibles.
[en] This synthesis reports a comprehensive study (October 2012) for ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, which presents an assessment of the potential impact of innovations in the field of photovoltaic components and systems. After a review of the photovoltaic industry and market in France and in the world, the production cost structure of a photovoltaic system is presented (module, assembly, installation). The impacts of innovations are then considered at the various stages of the chain value, from the material level (silicon, CdTe) to the installation level (ground based systems, roof installed, residential, etc.). Innovation impacts on the system production costs, on the electric power generation cost and on each market and sector (materials, wafers, cells, modules, systems, installation), are assessed. The potential impacts on job creations are also estimated. Assessment methodologies are systematically detailed
[en] This guide aims at providing advices to public actors for the implementation and management of participative and citizen projects of renewable energy. It first outlines context and stakes for territorial authorities and citizen, both considered as actors of an energy democracy. In the next chapter, and by referring to actual examples, it describes the approach to carry out a citizen-based project, and more precisely how a local authority can support the emergence of projects, as well as citizen initiatives, how it is involved in the development and in the building steps. The next chapter highlights the lessons which can be learned from a set of current experiments and situations: how can citizen make authorities participate to a project they initiated?, how can authorities make citizens participate to a project they initiated?, what actions are to be implemented when a developer wishes to intervene on a territory?, and finally an example where a community arranged support to the territorial policy of citizen renewable energies development
Towards energy autonomy for ZNIs. Synthesis and comparative analysis Reunion - Guadeloupe - Martinique. Final report of the study for the Martinique island; Synthesis of the study for the Martinique island; Final report of the study for the Reunion island; Synthesis of the study for the Reunion island; Final report of the study for the Guadeloupe island; Synthesis of the study for the Guadeloupe island
[en] A first report proposes a synthesis and a comparative analysis of the energy situation of three French islands (Reunion, Martinique and Guadeloupe), notably within the perspective of a development of renewable energy production aimed at reaching energy autonomy for these so-called 'non-interconnected areas' (ZNIs in French). Three other documents report detailed studies performed on these issues for each island (a synthesis is also provided in each case). The objectives of these studies were to see whether it was possible to provide a 100 pc renewable energy supply on an island territory by 2030, which would be the geographical distribution of production means, which would be the impact on electric power production cost, which would be the needs in terms of network infrastructures, and which would be the needs in terms of system balancing and servicing. The adopted methodology and the main hypotheses are presented: development of a data set for each source, optimisation of trajectories of evolution of the energy mix while using five scenarios, static and dynamic studies of the operation of electric power systems, economic analysis, and study of installation profitability and qualitative analysis of the evolution of exploitation rules. Among other things, the comparison reveals much higher storage means in the Reunion and Martinique islands than in Guadeloupe, a possibility of important reduction of the role of Diesel plants, and an expected decrease of electric power global costs
[en] This document proposes a synthesis of a study which aimed at determining what could be an available renewable or recovery gas resource by 2050 in metropolitan France, whether it would be sufficient to face gas demand every day and at any point of the network, which network or production sector evolutions would be needed, which are the available constraints and leeway, and which would be the impact on the average cost of supplied gas. Potential renewable resources come from methanization, pyro-gasification, and power-to-gas. The production mix assessment is based on an ADEME scenario for 2035-2050. Four scenarios have been defined to assess the different hypotheses, notably resources: a 100 per cent renewable and recovery energies, a 100 per cent renewable and recovery energies with a high pyro-gasification, a 100 per cent renewable and recovery energies with a biomass restrained to gas usages, and a 75 per cent renewable and recovery. Results are presented in terms of theoretical potential, gas demand meeting, cost, and avoided emissions. Lessons learned concern the possibility of a 100 per cent renewable gas system with necessary evolutions, and a complementarity between the gas and electric networks. Limitations and perspectives are discussed
[en] ADEME contributes to the discussions on France's proactive strategy, notably by examining possible trajectories for the French energies of the future and has been publishing energy-climate scenarios on a regular basis since 2013. This study, 'A 100% renewable gas mix in 2050?', conducted by ADEME in collaboration with GRDF and GRTgaz, follows on from the works published in 2016 - 2017, and concerns the second most consumed energy in France, gas. Herein, ADEME explores the conditions of the technical and economic feasibility of a gas system in 2050 based on 100% renewable gas. The work is based on ADEME's 2035-2050 energy scenario, with a level of final demand for gas in 2050 of around 300 TWh, compared with today's figure of 460 TWh. The results, based on sensitivity analyses and various renewable gas production mix scenarios, reveal that there is a theoretical potential source of renewable gas that could fulfil this lower demand for energy in 2050 at an overall cost of gas between euros 116 and euros 153/MWh. It would involve making some modifications to the gas system and notably development of the complementarity between the gas network and the electric grid. This confirms that to improve the sustainability of our energy system, we must strengthen the interactions between the energy vectors and optimise their synergies, at various territorial scales