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[en] During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face a more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. Thus, to upgrade the tracker to the required performance level, comprehensive measurements and simulation studies have already been carried out. Essential information of the performance of an irradiated silicon detector is obtained by monitoring its charge collection efficiency (CCE). From the evolution of CCE with fluence, it is possible to directly observe the effect of the radiation induced defects on the ability of the detector to collect charge carriers generated by traversing minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). In this paper the numerically simulated CCE and CCE loss between the strips of irradiated silicon strip detectors are presented. The simulations based on the Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD framework were performed before and after irradiation for fluences up to 1.5 × 1015 neqcm−2 for n-on-p sensors. A two level defect model and non-uniform three level defect model were applied for the proton irradiation simulations, and a two level model for neutrons. The results are presented together with the measurements of strip detectors irradiated by different particles and fluences and show considerable agreement for both CCE and its position dependency
[en] Segmented silicon detectors (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN. Due to the high luminosity and eventual high fluence of energetic particles, detectors with fast response to fit the short shaping time of 20–25 ns and sufficient radiation hardness are required. Charge collection measurements carried out at the Ioffe Institute have shown a reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short-range charge injection. Since the measured negative signal is about 30–60% of the peak positive signal, the effect strongly reduces the CCE even in non-irradiated detectors. For further investigation of the phenomenon the measurements have been reproduced by TCAD simulations. As for the measurements, the simulation study was applied for the p-on-n strip detectors similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment and for the Ioffe Institute designed p-on-n strip detectors with each strip having a window in the metallization covering the p+ implant, allowing the generation of electron-hole pairs under the strip implant. Red laser scans across the strips and the interstrip gap with varying laser diameters and Si-SiO2 interface charge densities ( Q f) were carried out. The results verify the experimentally observed negative response along the scan in the interstrip gap. When the laser spot is positioned on the strip p+ implant the negative response vanishes and the collected charge at the active strip increases respectively. The simulation results offer a further insight and understanding of the influence of the oxide charge density in the signal formation. The main result of the study is that a threshold value of Q f, that enables negligible losses of collected charges, is defined. The observed effects and details of the detector response for different charge injection positions are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem.
[en] During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face a more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. To upgrade the tracker to the required performance level, extensive measurements and simulation studies have already been carried out. A defect model for the bulk properties of proton irradiated silicon has been created with the Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD simulation package which produces simulated results that closely match the measured properties of silicon strip detectors. However, the expected behaviour due to increased surface damage is not so well predicted by the model. The solution requires an approach that does not affect the accurate bulk properties produced by the proton model, but only adds to it the required radiation induced properties close to the surface. These include the observed position dependence of the strip detector's charge collection efficiency (CCE). In this paper a procedure to find a defect model that reproduces the correct CCE loss, along with other surface properties of a strip detector up to a fluence 1.5×10"1"5 1 MeV n_e_q cm"−"2 (Φ_e_q), will be presented. When applied to CCE loss measurements at different fluences, this method may provide a means for the parametrization of the accumulation of oxide charge at the SiO_2/Si interface as a function of dose
[en] A new pixel detector for the CMS experiment was built in order to cope with the instantaneous luminosities anticipated for the Phase I Upgrade of the LHC . The new CMS pixel detector provides four-hit tracking with a reduced material budget as well as new cooling and powering schemes. A new front-end readout chip mitigates buffering and bandwidth limitations, and allows operation at low comparator thresholds. In this paper, comprehensive test beam studies are presented, which have been conducted to verify the design and to quantify the performance of the new detector assemblies in terms of tracking efficiency and spatial resolution. Under optimal conditions, the tracking efficiency is 99.95 ± 0.05%, while the intrinsic spatial resolutions are 4.80 ± 0.25 μm and 7.99 ± 0.21 μm along the 100 μm and 150 μm pixel pitch, respectively. The findings are compared to a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the pixel detector and good agreement is found.
[en] In this report we cover two special applications of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) thin films to solve these challenges of the very small size pixel detectors. First, we propose to passivate the p-type pixel detector with ALD grown Al_2O_3 field insulator with a negative oxide charge instead of using the commonly adopted p-stop or p-spray technologies with SiO_2, and second, to use plasma-enhanced ALD grown titanium nitride (TiN) bias resistors instead of the punch through biasing structures. Surface passivation properties of Al_2O_3 field insulator was studied by Photoconductive Decay (PCD) method and our results indicate that after appropriate annealing Al_2O_3 provides equally low effective surface recombination velocity as thermally oxidized Si/SiO_2 interface. Furthermore, with properly designed annealing steps, the TiN thin film resistors can be tuned to have up to several MΩ resistances with a few µm of physical size required in ultra-fine pitch pixel detectors.
[en] In order to address the problems caused by the harsh radiation environment during the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), all silicon tracking detectors (pixels and strips) in the CMS experiment will undergo an upgrade. And so to develop radiation hard pixel sensors, simulations have been performed using the 2D TCAD device simulator, SILVACO, to obtain design parameters. The effect of various design parameters like pixel size, pixel depth, implant width, metal overhang, p-stop concentration, p-stop depth and bulk doping density on the leakage current and critical electric field are studied for both non-irradiated as well as irradiated pixel sensors. These 2D simulation results of planar pixels are useful for providing insight into the behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated silicon pixel sensors and further work on 3D simulation is underway.
[en] Highlights: ► Laser clad defects are 0D-pores/inclusions, 1D-clad waviness or 2D-planar defects. ► Surface pore of laser clad bar initiates fatigue cracks. ► Side edge surface pores are more critical than in-clad surface pores. ► Smaller notch radius and angle of as-laser clad surface raises stress significantly. ► Planar inner defects grow faster towards surface. - Abstract: Fatigue cracking of laser clad cylindrical and square section bars depends upon a variety of factors. This paper presents Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the different macro stress fields generated as well as stress raisers created by laser cladding defects for four different fatigue load conditions. As important as the defect types are their locations and orientations, categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional defects. Pores and inclusions become critical close to surfaces. The performance of as-clad surfaces can be governed by the sharpness of surface notches and planar defects like hot cracks or lack-of-fusion (LOF) are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. The combination of the macro stress field with the defect type and its position and orientation determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser. Based on calculated cases, quantitative and qualitative charts were developed as guidelines to visualize the trends of different combinations