Results 1 - 10 of 35
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[en] I study how the contact area and the work of adhesion between two elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces depend on the relative humidity. The surfaces are assumed to be hydrophilic, and capillary bridges form at the interface between the solids. For elastically hard solids with relatively smooth surfaces, the area of real contact and therefore also the sliding friction are maximal when there is just enough liquid to fill out the interfacial space between the solids, which typically occurs for dK∼3hrms, where dK is the height of the capillary bridge and hrms the root-mean-square roughness of the (combined) surface roughness profile. For elastically soft solids, the area of real contact is maximal for very low humidity (i.e. small dK), where the capillary bridges are able to pull the solids into nearly complete contact. In both cases, the work of adhesion is maximal (and equal to 2γcosθ, where γ is the liquid surface tension and θ the liquid-solid contact angle) when dK >> hrms, corresponding to high relative humidity
[en] Strong adhesion between solids with rough surfaces is only possible if at least one of the solids is elastically very soft. Some lizards and spiders are able to adhere (dry adhesion) and move on very rough vertical surfaces due to very compliant surface layers on their attachment pads. Flies, bugs, grasshoppers and tree frogs have less compliant pad surface layers, and in these cases adhesion to rough surfaces is only possible because the animals inject a wetting liquid into the pad-substrate contact area, which generates a relative long-range attractive interaction due to the formation of capillary bridges. In this presentation I will discuss some aspects of wet adhesion for tree frogs and give some comments related to tire applications
[en] When two elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces are brought in contact, a very inhomogeneous stress distribution σ(x) will occur at the interface. Here I study the elastic energy and the correlation function <σ(q)σ(-q)>, where σ(q) is the Fourier transform of σ(x) and where <...> stands for ensemble average. I relate <σ(q)σ(-q)> to the elastic energy stored at the interface, and I show that for self-affine fractal surfaces, quite generally <σ(q)σ(-q)> ∼ q-(1+H) , where H is the Hurst exponent of the self-affine fractal surface. (fast track communication)
[en] When a rubber block is sliding on a hard rough substrate, the substrate asperities will exert time-dependent deformations of the rubber surface resulting in viscoelastic energy dissipation in the rubber, which gives a contribution to the sliding friction. Most surfaces of solids have roughness on many different length scales, and when calculating the friction force it is necessary to include the viscoelastic deformations on all length scales. The energy dissipation will result in local heating of the rubber. Since the viscoelastic properties of rubber-like materials are extremely strongly temperature dependent, it is necessary to include the local temperature increase in the analysis. At very low sliding velocity the temperature increase is negligible because of heat diffusion, but already for velocities of order 10-2 m s-1 the local heating may be very important. Here I study the influence of the local heating on the rubber friction, and I show that in a typical case the temperature increase results in a decrease in rubber friction with increasing sliding velocity for v>0.01 m s-1. This may result in stick-slip instabilities, and is of crucial importance in many practical applications, e.g. for tyre-road friction and in particular for ABS braking systems
[en] Rubber wear typically involves the removal of small rubber particles from the rubber surface. On surfaces with not too sharp roughness, e.g. most road surfaces, this involves (slow) crack propagation. In this paper I shall present a theory of mild rubber wear. I shall derive the distribution of wear particle sizes Φ(D), which is in excellent agreement with experiment. I shall also show that the calculated wear rate is consistent with experimental data for tire tread block wear.
[en] We study fluid dynamics at the interface between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces. The contact mechanics model of Persson is used to take into account the elastic interaction between the solid walls, and the Bruggeman effective medium theory to account for the influence of the disorder on the fluid flow. We calculated the flow tensor which determines the pressure flow factor and, for example, the leak rate of static seals. It is shown how the perturbation treatment of Tripp can be extended to arbitrary order in the ratio between the root-mean-square roughness amplitude and the average interfacial surface separation. We introduce a matrix D(ζ), determined by the surface roughness power spectrum, which can be used to describe the anisotropy of the surface at any magnification ζ. Results are presented for the asymmetry factor γ(ζ) (generalized Peklenik number) for grinded steel and sandblasted PMMA surfaces.
[en] We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.
[en] The contact mechanics model of Persson is applied to layered materials. We calculate the M function, which relates the surface stress to the surface displacement, for a layered material, where the top layer (thickness d) has different elastic properties than the semi-infinite solid below. Numerical results for the contact area as a function of the magnification are presented for several cases. As an application, we calculate the fluid leak rate for laminated rubber seals. (paper)
[en] The dynamics of the expulsion of the last liquid monolayer of molecules confined between two surfaces (measured recently for the first time) has been analyzed by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation combined with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Instabilities in the boundary line of the expelled film were observed. We show that the instabilities produce a rough boundary for all length scales above a critical value and a smooth boundary for shorter lengths. The squeezing out of all but a few trapped islands of liquid is shown to be the result of the pressure gradient in the contact area
[en] We study the average separation between an elastic solid and a hard solid, with a nominally flat but randomly rough surface, as a function of the squeezing pressure. We present experimental results for a silicon rubber (PDMS) block with a flat surface squeezed against an asphalt road surface. The theory shows that an effective repulsive pressure acts between the surfaces of the form p∼exp(-u/u0), where u is the average separation between the surfaces and u0 a constant of the order of the root-mean-square roughness, in good agreement with the experimental results.