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[en] Objective: • As a follow-up to PRADA, PROSA addresses the development of a “coordinated or harmonized” set of GIF and INPRO PROSA assessment tools. It will identify/define the interface of the PR and safeguard ability assessment tools of both approaches at their different levels of evaluation, in full consideration of the scope of their objectives, and examine the validity of a refined methodology by evaluating a mutually beneficial reference case. • A second objective is to inform the approach to revise the INPRO Methodology Sustainability Assessment in the area of Proliferation Resistance.
[en] Conclusion: • The objective of the new INPRO Service is to provide assistance, training and consultancy to Member States in regional and national long-term nuclear energy system analysis and strategic planning taking into account the potential of technical innovation and cooperation among countries. • The possible mechanism of delivering INPRO services in this area could be either national, regional or coordinated services provided to a set of nuclear trade partners as a group – or self selecting potential partners. • Distance training and on line consultations can be implemented efficiently upon request of Member States. • This new service would join NESA as an integrated service provided to Member States by the INPRO Section.
[en] Nuclear power is now broadly recognized as an essential technology in national strategies to provide energy security while meeting carbon management goals. Yet a long standing conundrum remains: how to enable rapid growth in the global nuclear power infrastructure while controlling the spread of sensitive enrichment and reprocessing technologies that lie at the heart of nuclear fuel supply and nuclear weapons programs. Reducing the latent proliferation risk posed by a broader horizontal spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology has been a primary goal of national nuclear supplier policies since the beginning of the nuclear power age. Attempts to control the spread of sensitive nuclear technology have been the subject of numerous initiatives in the intervening decades sometimes taking the form of calls to develop fuel supply and service assurances to reduce market pull to increase the number of states with fuel cycle capabilities. A clear understanding of what characteristics of specific reliable nuclear fuel service (RNFS) and supply arrangements qualify them as 'attractive offers' is critical to the success of current and future efforts. At a minimum, RNFS arrangements should provide economic value to all participants and help reduce latent proliferation risks posed by the global expansion of nuclear power. In order to inform the technical debate and the development of policy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been developing an analytical framework to evaluate the economics and nonproliferation merits of alternative approaches to RNFS arrangements. This paper provides a brief overview of the economic analysis framework developed and applied to a model problem of current interest: full-service nuclear fuel leasing arrangements. Furthermore, this paper presents an extended outline of a proposed analysis approach to evaluate the non-proliferation merits of various RNFS alternatives.
[en] The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.
[en] The goal of international nuclear policy since the dawn of nuclear power has been the peaceful expansion of nuclear energy while controlling the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology. Numerous initiatives undertaken in the intervening decades to develop international agreements on providing nuclear fuel supply assurances, or reliable nuclear fuel services (RNFS) attempted to control the spread of sensitive nuclear materials and technology. In order to inform the international debate and the development of government policy, PNNL has been developing an analytical framework to holistically evaluate the economics and non-proliferation merits of alternative approaches to managing the nuclear fuel cycle (i.e., cradle-to-grave). This paper provides an overview of the analytical framework and discusses preliminary results of an economic assessment of one RNFS approach: full-service nuclear fuel leasing. The specific focus of this paper is the metrics under development to systematically evaluate the non-proliferation merits of fuel-cycle management alternatives. Also discussed is the utility of an integrated assessment of the economics and non-proliferation merits of nuclear fuel leasing.
[en] Conclusion: • Vendors provided a valuable demonstration of application of INPRO Methodology. • Vendors have important roles to (i) validate INPRO methodology, (ii) provide design information, (iii) help reduce assessor’s efforts in INPRO assessment of design specific areas. • For full scope NESA, assessors should work in close cooperation with vendors or with consultants with detailed design knowledge.
[en] Is it time for a nuclear energy renaissance? Among other things, nuclear power is a carbon neutral source of base load power. With the growth in energy use expected over the next 20 years and the growing negative impacts of global climate changes, the cost of oil and gas, energy security and diversity concerns, and progress on advanced reactor designs, it may be the right time for nuclear power to enter a new age of growth. Asia and Russia are both planning for a nuclear renaissance. In Europe, Finland and France have both taken steps to pursue new nuclear reactors. U.S. utilities are preparing for orders of new reactors; one submitted a request to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to review its request to construct a new reactor on an existing site. What has the industry been doing since nuclear energy was birthed in the 1960s? In those days a bold new industry boasted that nuclear power in the United States was going to be ''too cheap to meter'', but as we all know this did not come about for many reasons. Eventually, it became clear that industry had neglected to do its homework. Critiques of the industry were made on safety, security, environment, economic competitiveness (without government support), and nonproliferation. All of these factors need to be effectively addressed to promote the confidence and support of the public - without which a nuclear power program is not feasible.
[en] To enable the expansion of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes while discouraging the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology to additional countries, existing front- and back-end supplier States are considering a variety of approaches to encourage the establishment of Reliable Fuel Service and Supply (RFS and S) arrangements for providing fresh fuel and taking back of spent fuel. Important aspects of such a trade regime are the economic basis, the product offerings, and alternative business models for RFS and S arrangements. This paper provides an assessment of the potential economic and nonproliferation benefits of one type of RFS and S trade regime currently under active consideration: full-service nuclear fuel leasing arrangements. Several different fuel leasing implementation models are evaluated to develop an understanding of the range of potential economic benefit to the lessee and, conversely, the economic liability to the lessor. Results suggest that while economic benefits are potentially substantial, these benefits also vary substantially depending on how a fuel leasing arrangement is implemented.
[en] Conclusions: INPRO continues to develop IAEA tools and services to assist Member States: - INPRO Methodology for assessment of sustainability of NES has been demonstrated for specific LMFR designs. - Scenario and multi-criteria decision analysis tools for NES involving fast reactors in integrated energy systems have been developed.
[en] PROSA - Ultimate goal: • Make assessment of Proliferation Resistance simpler, less time consuming. • Provide recommendations to revise INPRO Manual on Proliferation Resistance (TECDOC/1575, rev. 1, Volume 5 ). • Use only the depth of analysis necessary to address the assessor’s needs (two-dimensional phased assessment): – Facility level – comparative assessment, safeguardability assessment, diversion path analysis; – NES level – diversion path analysis; • State level – evaluate completeness of legal and regulatory undertakings and their implications at NES and facility levels; – “Self assessment” or “assessment by others” affects assessment philosophy and purpose.