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[en] Due to obvious climate change, caused mainly by combustion of the fossil fuels, as well as to their modest reserves, energy transformation is under way. It is the transition from the fossil fuels to improved energy efficiency (ENEF) and renewable energy sources (RES). Leading role in the energy transformation has Germany with 'Energiewende', which among other includes closing of existing nuclear power plants until 2022. Croatia has very limited proven fossil fuels reserves, which cover 3/4 of primary energy in consumption. Croatia also has large potential for improvements in ENEF and RES. Therefore, energy transformation of Croatia is justified. (author).
[en] The Croatian energy sector is excessively dependent on oil and natural gas, and fossil fuels reserves are very modest. At the same time, unused renewable energy potentials are relatively high. Energy import is constantly increasing, and is already very much above the EU average, thus contributing to very high Croatian foreign trade deficit. Croatia has not yet ratified the Kyoto Protocol, which it will be bound to do in the framework of the accession to the EU. Therefore, this climate scenario of the Croatian Energy Sector Development Strategy is proposed. It underlines the enhancement of energy efficiency and accelerated development of renewable energies.(author)
[en] Project EE - RECRO (Energy Efficiency - Renewable Energy of Croatia) contains main elements of the European Commission Winter Package 'Clean Energy For All Europeans', applied in the Croatian Energy System. These are primarily energy efficiency (EE) increasing, and then growth of the renewable energy (RE) share in the total energy consumption. Unutilized EE and RE potentials in the Croatia are very great, much greater than total energy consumption. Higher utilization of the EE and RE potentials would result in better energy security, positive economic - financial effects, favourable climatic, ecological and sanitary performances, as well as larger domestic employment. (author).
[en] The Republic of Croatia has modest proven fossil fuels (oil and gas) reserves and relatively abundant renewable energy potential (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, hydro), distributed mainly in less developed regions of Croatia. The Croatian energy system is excessively dependent on expensive oil and natural gas (80% of primary energy), compared to the European Union (61%), and the world average (58%). Approximately 60% of total energy is imported, which considerably contributes to the country's very high foreign trade deficit and foreign debt. Putting into focus of the Croatian energy policy the improvement of energy efficiency and implementation of renewable energies would significantly increase opportunities for mitigating rather wide regional development disparities and high unemployment rates, at the same time reducing energy import, foreign trade deficit and foreign debt, and contributing to energy security as a part of the national security.(author)
[en] Energy revolution is taking place in the world with objective to mitigate consequences of evident climate change, caused mostly by emissions of the greenhouse gases from combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas). The principal elements of the energy revolution are decrease in energy consumption by increase in energy efficiency and substitution of fossil fuels by renewable energies, supported by 'clean' fossil fuels and nuclear energy. (author)
[en] Energy security is an important component of the national security. Definition of the energy security is proposed in the paper, based on the multi criteria analyses, containing criteria of energy independence, static duration of the fossil reserves, renewable energy participation, energy efficiency, international energy connections and incidents threats. Review of the main energy exporters is included, as well.(author).
[en] Energy crisis 2000 in the USA (California etc.) and drastic prices increase of natural gas and oil actualized item of energy supply security. In the EU, with expected rise of energy import dependency from 50 percent today to 70 percent in 2020 the Green Paper on this subject has been recently launched. In the USA, with 27 percent today and 41 percent in 2000, new National Energy Policy was proposed in the spring 2001 containing measures to improve security of energy supply. This problem is actual in the Croatia too, because of similar energy import dependency to EU, and the planned energy market liberalization.(author)
[en] Distributed power generation (DPG) represents perspective supplement to the centralised power systems because it increases energy security, reduces power losses and pollutant emissions. To enable faster deployment of DPG it is necessary to remove barriers, such as inadequate tariff systems and utilities' regulatory regimes, as well as establish adequate incentives. DPG in Croatia lags behind European Union, but some positive moves are evident.(author)
[en] Energy sector based on the fossil fuels combustion has the largest greenhouse gases emissions, causing the actual climate change with numerous negative impacts. Therefore, different measures for the climate change mitigation are performed, mostly by increasing ENEF-energy efficiency (saving), and by substituting fossil fuels with renewable energy (RE), mainly with limited results. One of the most serious obstacles for implementation of these measures is an opposition of the energy utilities (power and natural gas), whose energy sales, revenue and profit are thus reduced. Consequently, new solutions are asked to decouple utilities revenues from energy sales. Decoupling has started in the US, where most states have at least one utility with some decoupling experience. California has pioneering role since 1982., with impressive results. (author)
[en] The escalation of oil prices and the issue of energy supply security have emphasized the importance of a more rapid implementation of sustainable energy sector elements - renewable energy sources and energy efficiency. Croatia has recorded an increasingly negative balance of payments due to a considerable discrepancy between its import and its export, the former involving a significant amount of fossil fuels. Croatia has relatively scarce fossil fuels resources; on the other hand, its renewable energy sources as well as the possibility of energy efficiency improvement are comparatively abundant. Consequently, an increased use of renewable energies and the improvement of its energy efficiency are in the best interest of the Republic of Croatia.(author)