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[en] The average stopping power of the recoiled nuclei generated by neutron elastic interactions with the Freon-12 drops in a superheated drop detector has been used to determine the maximum neutron energy of the "2"4"1Am–Be source. In an elastic interaction of neutrons with the Freon-12 liquid, the nuclei of "1"2C, "1"9F and "3"5Cl with different values of stopping power are scattered. The stopping power of these scattered nuclei corresponding to the energy transferred to them through the head-on collision was extracted from the SRIM code. The stopping power values were weighted by considering the neutron–nucleus elastic scattering cross section and the number of each nucleus in the Freon-12 molecule and the average stopping power was calculated from known neutron energy. The maximum energy of the "2"4"1Am–Be neutron source was estimated as 10.9 ± 3.0 MeV. The consistency between the determined energy and the other reported values confirms the validity of using the average stopping power in the superheated drop detectors. The average stopping power was also used to determine the threshold neutron energy as a function of external applied pressure at different temperatures. Knowing the threshold neutron energy as function of applied pressure, can be used in pressure scanning method for neutron spectrometry by superheated drop detectors. - Highlights: • Using average stopping power of recoiled nucleus to estimate the neutron energy. • Converting threshold pressure of superheated drop detector to the neutron energy. • Estimation the maximum neutron energy in the "2"4"1Am–Be source about 10.9 MeV. • Calculation the threshold neutron energy as a function of applied pressure.
[en] Highlights: • A multi-element thick gas electron multiplier (THGEM)-based microdosimeter is studied for high energy neutrons. • Quality factors are obtained for neutrons by simulating 1 µm of tissue. • An energy-independent dose-equivalent response is achieved between 14 MeV and 5 GeV. - Abstract: The response of a microdosimeter for neutrons above 14 MeV is investigated. The mean quality factors and dose-equivalents are determined using lineal energy distributions calculated by Monte Carlo simulations (Geant4 toolkit). From 14 MeV to 5 GeV, the mean quality factors were found to vary between 6.00 and 9.30 and the dose-equivalents were in agreement with the true ambient dose-equivalent at the depth of 10 mm inside the ICRU sphere, . An energy-independent dose-equivalent response around a median value of 0.86 within 22% uncertainty was obtained. Therefore, the microdosimeter is appropriate for dose-equivalent measurement of high-energy neutrons.
[en] Non-random event losses due to dead time effect in nuclear radiation detection systems distort the original Poisson process into a new type of distribution. As the characteristics of the distribution depend on physical properties of the detection system, it is possible to estimate the dead time parameters based on time interval analysis, this is the problem investigated in this work. A BF3 ionization chamber is taken as a case study to check the validity of the method in experiment. The results are compared with the data estimated by power rising experiment performed in Esfahan Heavy Water Zero Power Reactor (EHWZPR). Using Monte Carlo simulation, the problem is elaborately studied and useful range for counting rates of the detector is determined. The proposed method is accurate and applicable for all kinds of radiation detectors with no potential difficulty and no need for any especial nuclear facility. This is not a time consuming method and advanced capability of online examination during normal operation of the detection system is possible
[en] Full text: The use of 103Pd seed sources for permanent prostate implantation has become a popular brachytherapy application. As recommended by AAPM the dosimetric characteristics of the new source must be determined using experimental and Monte Carlo simulations, before its use in clinical applications thus The goal of this report is the experimental and theoretical determination of the dosimetric characteristics of this source following the recommendations in the AAPM TG-43U1 protocol. Figure 1 shows the geometry of the IRA-103Pd source. The source consists of a cylindrical silver core, 0.3 cm long x 0.05 cm in diameter, onto which 0.5 nm layer of 103Pd has been uniformly adsorbed. The effective active length of source is 0.3 cm and the silver core encapsulated inside a hollow titanium tube with 0.45 cm long, 0.07 cm and 0.08 inner and outer diameters and two caps. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code, version 4C, was used to determine the relevant dosimetric parameters of the source. The geometry of the Monte Carlo simulation performed in this study consisted of a sphere with 30 cm diameter. Dose distributions around this source were measured in two Perspex phantom using enough TLD chips. For these measurements, slabs of Perspex material were machined to accommodate the source and TLD chips. A value of 0.67± 1% cGy.h-1.U-1 for, Λ, was calculated as the ratio of d(r0,θ0) and sK, that may be compared with Λ values obtained for 103Pd sources. Result of calculations and measurements values of dosimetric parameters of the source including radial dose function, g(r), and anisotropy function, F(r,θ), has been shown in separate figures. The radial dose function, g(r), for the IRA-103Pd source and other 103Pd sources is included in Fig. 2. Comparison between measured and Monte Carlo simulated dose function, g(r), and anisotropy function, F(r,θ), of this source demonstrated that they are in good agreement with each other and The value of Λ is comparable with the other 103Pd sources. These measurements and calculations were performed following the AAPM TG-43U1 task group recommendations. (author)
[en] This article presents a brachytherapy source having 103Pd adsorbed onto a cylindrical silver rod that has been developed by the Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School for permanent implant applications. Dosimetric characteristics (radial dose function, anisotropy function, and anisotropy factor) of this source were experimentally and theoretically determined in terms of the updated AAPM Task group 43 (TG-43U1) recommendations. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the dose rate constant. Measurements were performed using TLD-GR200A circular chip dosimeters using standard methods employing thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Perspex phantom. Precision machined bores in the phantom located the dosimeters and the source in a reproducible fixed geometry, providing for transverse-axis and angular dose profiles over a range of distances from 0.5 to 5 cm. The Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code, version 4C simulation techniques have been used to evaluate the dose-rate distributions around this model 103Pd source in water and Perspex phantoms. The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate constant of the IRA-103Pd source in water was found to be 0.678 cGy h-1 U-1 with an approximate uncertainty of ±0.1%. The anisotropy function, F(r,θ), and the radial dose function, g(r), of the IRA-103Pd source were also measured in a Perspex phantom and calculated in both Perspex and liquid water phantoms
[en] This work presents a brachytherapy source having 103Pd adsorbed onto a cylindrical silver rod that has been developed by Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School for permanent implant applications. Dosimetric characteristics (dose-rate constant, radial dose function, anisotropy function and anisotropy factor) of this source were experimentally and theoretically determined in terms of the updated AAPM Task Group 43 (TG-43U1) recommendations. Measurements were performed using TLD-GR200A circular chip dosimeters using standard methods employing thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Perspex phantom. Precision machined bores in the phantom located dosimeters and source in a reproducible fixed geometry providing for transverse-axis and angular dose profiles over a range of distances from 0.5 to 5 cm. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code, version 4C was used to evaluate the dose-rate distributions around this model 103Pd source in water and Perspex phantoms. The Monte Carlo calculated dose-rate constant of the IRA1-103Pd source in water was found equal to Λ=0.669 cGy/h/U with approximate uncertainties of ±0.1%. The anisotropy function, F(r, θ), and the radial dose function, gL(r), of the IRA1-103Pd source were also measured in Perspex phantom and calculated in both Perspex and liquid water phantom
[en] Resolution-sensitivity-PDA tradeoff is the most challenging problem in design and optimization of pixelated preclinical SPECT scanners. In this work, we addressed such a challenge from a crystal point-of-view by looking for an optimal pixelated scintillator using GATE Monte Carlo simulation. Various crystal configurations have been investigated and the influence of different pixel sizes, pixel gaps, and three scintillators on tomographic resolution, sensitivity, and PDA of the camera were evaluated. The crystal configuration was then optimized using two objective functions: the weighted-sum and the figure-of-merit methods. The CsI(Na) reveals the highest sensitivity of the order of 43.47 cps/MBq in comparison to the NaI(Tl) and the YAP(Ce), for a 1.5×1.5 mm"2 pixel size and 0.1 mm gap. The results show that the spatial resolution, in terms of FWHM, improves from 3.38 to 2.21 mm while the sensitivity simultaneously deteriorates from 42.39 cps/MBq to 27.81 cps/MBq when pixel size varies from 2×2 mm"2 to 0.5×0.5 mm"2 for a 0.2 mm gap, respectively. The PDA worsens from 0.91 to 0.42 when pixel size decreases from 0.5×0.5 mm"2 to 1×1 mm"2 for a 0.2 mm gap at 15° incident-angle. The two objective functions agree that the 1.5×1.5 mm"2 pixel size and 0.1 mm Epoxy gap CsI(Na) configuration provides the best compromise for small-animal imaging, using the HiReSPECT scanner. Our study highlights that crystal configuration can significantly affect the performance of the camera, and thereby Monte Carlo optimization of pixelated detectors is mandatory in order to achieve an optimal quality tomogram. - Highlights: • We optimized pixelated crystal configuration for the purpose of molecular SPECT imaging. • The weighted-sum and the figure-of-merit methods were used in order to search for an optimal crystal configuration. • The higher the pixel size, the poorer the resolution and simultaneously the higher the sensitivity and the PDA. • The higher the pixel gap, the poorer the resolution and the sensitivity, and the greater the PDA. • Based on relative importance of resolution, sensitivity, and PDA, the optimal configuration was investigated.
[en] In this paper, a set of superheated drop detectors operated at different pressures is developed and fabricated by adding an appropriate amount of Freon-12 liquid on the free surface of the detector. The fabricated detectors have been used for determination of the threshold pressure for 2.89 MeV neutrons of a neutron generator in order to estimate the thermodynamic efficiency. Finally, knowing the thermodynamic efficiency of the detector and in a similar manner, the threshold pressure for "2"4"1Am–Be neutrons is determined and accordingly, the maximum neutron energy of the source spectrum is estimated. The maximum neutron energy of the "2"4"1Am–Be is estimated as 10.97±2.11 MeV. The agreement between this measured maximum energy and the reported value of the "2"4"1Am–Be neutron source shows that the method developed to apply pressure on the superheated drop detectors can be used to control the energy threshold of these detectors
[en] TG-43U1 dosimetric parameters of a new brachytherapy 103Pd source, including dose-rate constant, radial dose function, 2D anisotropy function, 1D anisotropy function and anisotropy constant, have been determined using MCNP4C code and have been verified by measurements in Perspex phantoms, using TLD-100 dosimeters calibrated in 60Co radiation field. The comparison of calculated and measured dosimetric parameters showed the validity of Monte Carlo calculations and experimental results. The anisotropy constant was calculated as 0.87 in water and 0.88 in Perspex; and measured as 0.92 in Perspex. Comparing dosimetric parameters of the new source with other source models showed acceptable agreement
[en] Lead silicate glasses (LSGs) have high gamma-ray attenuation but low chemical durability properties. In this work, LSGs with (55.5-68.5 wt%) PbO content containing ZrO2 and TiO2 additions were produced. The chemical corrosion of various produced LSGs in 0.5 N HNO3 aqueous solution and determination of their gamma-ray attenuation coefficients for 60Co and 137Cs sources were investigated. The weight loss measurements, the SEM micrographs, the EDS analysis of the sample surfaces and the ICP analysis of solution were used to characterize the dissolution process. The effects of PbO content, ZrO2 and TiO2 additives on chemical corrosion, and also the effect of PbO on gamma-ray attenuation coefficient, glass transition temperature (Tg), and density of LSG glasses were determined. The results showed that by increasing the lead content of glass the gamma-ray attenuation coefficient, chemical corrosion and density were increased, but the Tg decreased. One of the samples with PbO contents of 65.4 wt% and SiO2 content of 26.9 wt% showed a very low chemical corrosion behavior and good gamma-ray absorption property.