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[en] This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and application of copper nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical determination of dopamine. Electrochemical measurements were performed using differently modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Bare, oxidized before modification and copper nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes (bare-GC, ox-GC and CuNP/GC electrodes, respectively) were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of redox probes. Atomic force microscopy was used for the visualization of electrode surfaces. The CuNP/GC electrode was found to be suitable for the selective determination of dopamine even in the presence of ascorbic acid, uric acid, and p-acetamidophenol. The observed linear range of CuNP/GC for dopamine was from 0.1 nM to 1.0 μM while the detection limit was estimated to be 50 pM. It was demonstrated that here reported glassy carbon electrode modified by copper nanoparticles is suitable for the determination of dopamine in real samples such as human blood serum.
[en] Highlights: • Sensor based on polypyrrole imprinted by theophylline (MIP) deposited on oxygen terminated boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond was developed. • This structure was applied as impedimetric sensor sensitive for theophylline. • Optimal polymer formation conditions suitable for MIP formation were elaborated. • Some analytical parameters were determined and evaluated. - Abstract: In this study development of impedimetric sensor based on oxygen terminated boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B:NCD:O) modified with theophylline imprinted polypyrrole is described. Hydrogen peroxide induced chemical formation of polypyrrole molecularly imprinted by theophylline was applied for the modification of conducting silicon substrate covered by B:NCD:O film. Non-imprinted polypyrrole layer was formed on similar substrate in order to prove efficiency of imprinted polypyrrole. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied for the evaluation of analyte-induced changes in electrochemical capacitance/resistance. The impact of polymerization duration on the capacitance of impedimetric sensor was estimated. A different impedance behavior was observed at different ratio of polymerized monomer and template molecule in the polymerization media. The influence of ethanol as additive to polymerization media on registered changes in capacitance/resistance was evaluated. Degradation of sensor stored in buffer solution was evaluated
[en] Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- ABSTRACT: The amperometric glucose biosensors based on adsorbed electron transfer mediator (ETM) tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) or 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (PD) and glucose oxidase (GOx) from Aspergillus niger (GOx_A_._n_i_g_e_r), Penicillium adametzii (GOx_P_._a_d_a_m_e_t_z_i_i) or Penicillium funiculosum (GOx_P_._f_u_n_i_c_u_l_o_s_u_m) cross-linked with glutaraldehyde were investigated. ETM and enzyme were immobilized layer by layer on bare graphite rod electrode (GR) premodified with gold nanoparticles (AuNP) of (i) 3.5 nm (GOx/ETM/AuNP_3_._5/GR), (ii) 6.0 nm (GOx/ETM/AuNP_6_._0/GR) and (iii) 13.0 nm (GOx/ETM/AuNP_1_3_._0/GR) size. The amperometric signals for all the developed biosensors were higher using PD in comparison with TTF. The biosensor based on GOx_P_._f_u_n_i_c_u_l_o_s_u_m showed higher analytical signal to glucose in a comparison to biosensors based on GOx_A_._n_i_g_e_r and GOx_P_._a_d_a_m_e_t_z_i_i. The registered current to glucose using GOx_P_._f_u_n_i_c_u_l_o_s_u_m/PD/AuNP_3_._5/GR electrode was linear in the glucose range from 0.1 to 10.0 mmol L"−"1 and the limit of detection was 0.024 mmol L"−"1. Enzymatical synthesis of polypyrrole (Ppy) layer on the electrode was applied in order to expand the linear glucose detection range. After 22 h of polymerization the amperometric signal was linear in the glucose concentration range from 0.1 to 25.0 mmol L"−"1, while after 69 h this rage was increased up to 50.0 mmol L"−"1. Additionally Ppy layer on the electrode surface reduced the influence of interfering species on the amperometric signal. The performance of developed biosensor was investigated in human serum samples
[en] High-frequency (40 MHz) and low-frequency (7 MHz) capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT) were fabricated and tested for use in gravimetric detection of biomolecules. The low-frequency CMUT sensors have a gold-coated surface, while the high-frequency sensors have a silicon nitride surface. Both surfaces were functionalized with bovine leukemia virus antigen gp51 acting as the antigen. On addition of an a specific antibody labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), the antigen/antibody complex is formed on the surface and quantified by HRP-catalyzed oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine. It has been found that a considerably smaller quantity of immuno complex is formed on the high frequency sensor surface. In parallel, the loading of the surface of the CMUT was determined via resonance frequency and electromechanical resistance readings. Following the formation of the immuno complexes, the resonance frequencies of the low-frequency and high-frequency sensors decrease by up to 420 and 440 kHz, respectively. Finite element analysis reveals that the loading of the (gold-coated) low frequency sensors is several times larger than that on high frequency sensors. The formation of the protein film with pronounced elasticity and stress on the gold surface case is discussed. We also discuss the adoption of this method for the detection of DNA using a hybridization assay following polymerase chain reaction. (author)
[en] Highlights: ► Polypyrrole nanoparticles synthesized by environmentally friendly polymerization at high concentrations are cytotoxic. ► Primary mouse embryonic fibroblast, mouse hepatoma and human T lymphocyte Jurkat cell lines were treated by Ppy nanoparticles. ► Polypyrrole nanoparticles at high concentrations inhibit cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Polypyrrole (Ppy) is known as biocompatible material, which is used in some diverse biomedical applications and seeming to be a very promising for advanced biotechnological applications. In order to increase our understanding about biocompatibility of Ppy, in this study pure Ppy nanoparticles (Ppy-NPs) of fixed size and morphology were prepared by one-step oxidative polymerization and their cyto-compatibility was evaluated. The impact of different concentration of Ppy nanoparticles on primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), mouse hepatoma cell line (MH-22A), and human T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line was investigated. Cell morphology, viability/proliferation after the treatment by Ppy nanoparticles was evaluated. Obtained results showed that Ppy nanoparticles at low concentrations are biocompatible, while at high concentrations they became cytotoxic for Jurkat, MEF and MH-22A cells, and it was found that cytotoxic effect is dose-dependent
[en] Present investigation deals with electrochemical determination of copper(II), lead(II) and mercury(II) ions, using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelating ligand modified polyaniline (PANI) and singe walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) based nanocomposite (PANI/SWNCTs). Stainless steel (SS) electrode was modified with PANI and SWCNTs based nanocomposite. PANI/SWCNTs nanocomposite was electrochemically synthesized using potential cycling technique. Further it was modified with EDTA in the presence of 1-ethyl-3(3-(dimethylamin propyl)carbodiimide (EDC) as activating agent, using dip coating technique at room temperature. The EDTAPANI/SWCNTs/SS electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry in 0.5 M H2SO4, which was complemented with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). AFM and SEM analysis was applied for the morphological studies of EDTAPANI/SWCNTs nanocomposite structure. FTIR analysis was applied for the structural and compositional analysis of EDTAPANI/SWCNTs nanocomposite. All the characterizations were performed before and after the modification of PANI/SWCNTs nanocomposite structure with chelating ligand. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for the determination of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Hg(II) ion concentrations. Analytical characteristic such as selectivity and sensitivity of here above-mentioned metal ions was studied. The limit of detection the EDTAPANI/SWCNTs/SS toward Cu(II), Pb(II) and Hg(II) was determined as 0.08 μM, 1.65 μM and 0.68 μM respectively.
[en] Highlights: • Organized Si nanowires (Si NWs) were produced by metal-assisted chemical etching. • The SiNWs were coated with a ZnO layer by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) • The structural and optical properties of the obtained nanostructures were studied. • Photoluminescence (PL) showed the domination of defect emission bands. • The PL intensity of SiNWs/ZnO decreased with the increase of Si NWs etching time. - Abstract: In this work, we report proof-of-concept results on the synthesis of Si core/ ZnO shell nanowires (SiNWs/ZnO) by combining nanosphere lithography (NSL), metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). The structural properties of the SiNWs/ZnO nanostructures prepared were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all samples have a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The grain sizes are found to be in the range of 7–14 nm. The optical properties of the samples were investigated using reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The study of photoluminescence (PL) spectra of SiNWs/ZnO samples showed the domination of defect emission bands, pointing to deviations of the stoichiometry of the prepared 3D ZnO nanostructures. Reduction of the PL intensity of the SiNWs/ZnO with the increase of SiNWs etching time was observed, depicting an advanced light scattering with the increase of the nanowire length. These results open up new prospects for the design of electronic and sensing devices.