Results 1 - 10 of 19
Results 1 - 10 of 19. Search took: 0.021 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Highlights: • Heterogeneous junctions represent a critical issue in Nuclear Fusion experiments. • We have developed a new technique for heterogeneous junctions, called VTTJ, whose main advantages are low cost, high reliability and easiness of construction. • The VTTJ junctions have passed all the tests required by ITER for the heterogeneous junctions of the divertor. • Further tests have demonstrated wide margins for operation (up to 700 °C and 500 bar). - Abstract: A new technique, called Vacuum Tight Threaded Junction (VTTJ), has been developed and patented by Consorzio RFX, permitting to obtain low-cost and reliable non-welded junctions, able to maintain vacuum tightness also in heavy loading conditions (high temperature and high mechanical loads). The technique can be applied also if the materials to be joint are not weldable and for heterogeneous junctions (for example, between steel and copper) and has been tested up to 500 bar internal pressure and up to 700 °C, showing excellent leak tightness in vacuum conditions and high mechanical resistance. The main advantages with respect to existing technologies (for example, friction welding and electron beam welding) are an easy construction, a low cost, a precise positioning of the junction and a high repeatability of the process. Due to these advantages, the new technique has been adopted for several components of the SPIDER experiment and it is proposed for ITER, in particular for the ITER Heat and Current Drive Neutral Beam Injector and for its prototype, the MITICA experiment, to be tested at Consorzio RFX. This paper gives a detailed description of the VTTJ technique, of the samples manufactured and of the qualification tests that have been carried out so far.
[en] The SPIDER and MITICA experiments, planned to be built at Consorzio RFX for the development and optimization of the ITER Heating and Current Drive Neutral Beam Injectors, feature a number of components intercepted by high heat fluxes, that must be cooled during operations by means of suitable high performance cooling systems. As the design for such cooling systems presents some technological and heat transfer issues, a specific R and D program has been carried out, particularly referred to the accelerator grids that are among the most critical components. These components are foreseen to be manufactured by electrodeposition of pure copper onto a copper base plate to realize cooling channels and magnets slots, while the connection with the feeding manifolds is foreseen to be realized by friction welding or electron beam welding. Suitable manufacturing parameters and production methodologies have been identified by constructing and testing a first series of prototypes. A set of thermocouples have been embedded in some prototypes, to allow the evaluation of local heat transfer coefficients and the identification of local spots where dry-out phenomena might occur. To this purpose, a dedicated electrodeposition process has been developed.
[en] In the framework of the development of the ITER neutral beam (NB) system, a test facility is planned to be built in Padova. A full size prototype of the ITER heating NB injector (MITICA) shall be built and tested at full beam power (17 MW) as per ITER requirements. The design of the MITICA beam source has further progressed following updated optimization and overall integration criteria. In the paper, the major design choices and revisions are presented, together with some results of numerical analyses carried out in order to assess the electrostatic and thermo-mechanical behaviour of the source.
[en] Highlights: ► The work is focused on the manufacturing process of the Plasma Driver Plate of MITICA. ► A clad plate of molybdenum and copper has been manufactured. ► Simulations have been carried out to improve the design geometry of the component. ► The driver-hole rim have been machined and hot formed. ► No delamination were found in the molybdenum. -- Abstract: The back plate of the MITICA plasma source, named Plasma Driver Plate (PDP), will be protected from the impact of the highly energetic back-streaming positive ions (BSI+), generated inside the accelerator, by a 1.0 mm thick molybdenum layer that will be joined by Explosion Bonding (EB) technique to the copper heat sink. This technology has been investigated and used for manufacturing prototypes, demonstrating very high strength of the obtained molybdenum–copper interface. The production of the shaped edge profile of the driver-hole, after the EB, is an open point. In order to demonstrate the possibility to produce the PDP by explosion bonding, the manufacturing of a full scale prototype of the area just around one of the PDP driver-holes was identified as the road to address most of the manufacturing issues. Elasto-plastic finite element analyses have been carried out to improve the hole rim geometry and the process parameters of all the manufacturing steps. A full scale prototype of the PDP driver-hole has been manufactured and tested. This contribution gives an overview of the R and D activities carried out to address the main open issues, to define the PDP component detailed geometry and its manufacturing processes, via EB technique
[en] To study and optimise negative ion production for the ITER neutral beam injectors, a test facility is under construction in Padova with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The instrumented calorimeter STRIKE (short-time retractable instrumented kalorimeter experiment) is being developed to characterise the SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) beam during short operations. The paper presents an investigation of the response of STRIKE measurement systems. It results that biasing is necessary to cope with the influence of secondary electrons on current measurements; moreover, despite the discretisation of the recorded thermal patterns introduced by the pixels of thermal cameras, a sufficient spatial resolution is expected
[en] Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement is the full scale prototype of the heating and current drive neutral beam injectors for ITER, to be built at Consorzio RFX (Padova). The engineering design of its components is challenging: the total heat loads they will be subjected to (expected between 2 and 19 MW), the high heat fluxes (up to 20 MW/m"2), and the beam pulse duration up to 1 h, set demanding requirements for reliable active cooling circuits. In support of the design, the thermo-hydraulic behavior of each cooling circuit under steady state condition has been investigated by using one-dimensional models. The final results, obtained considering a number of optimizations for the cooling circuits, show that all the requirements in terms of flow rate, temperature, and pressure drop are properly fulfilled
[en] An important feature of the ITER project is represented by additional heating via injection of neutral beams from accelerated negative ions. To study and optimise their production, the SPIDER test facility is under construction in Padova, with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation.STRIKE (Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment) is a diagnostic to characterise the SPIDER negative ion beam during short operation (several seconds). During long pulse operations, STRIKE is parked off-beam in the vacuum vessel. The most important measurements are beam uniformity, beamlet divergence and stripping losses. STRIKE is directly exposed to the beam and is formed of 16 tiles, one for each beamlet groups. The measurements are provided by thermal cameras, current sensors, thermocouples and electrostatic sensors. This paper presents the investigation of the influence on the response of STRIKE of: thermal characteristics of the tile material, exposure angle, features of some dedicated diagnostics. The uniformity of the beam will be studied by measurements of the current flowing through each tile and by thermal cameras. Simulations show that it will be possible to verify experimentally whether the beam meets the ITER requirement about the maximum allowed beam non-uniformity (below ±10%). In the simulations also the influence of the beam halo has been included; the effect of off-perveance conditions has been studied. To estimate the beamlet divergence, STRIKE can be moved along the beam direction at two different distances from the accelerator. The optimal positions have been defined taking into account design constraints. The effect of stripping on the comparison between currents and heat loads has been assessed; this will allow to obtain an experimental estimate of stripping. Electrostatic simulations have provided the suitable tile biasing voltage in order to reabsorb secondary particles into the same tile as the one where they were emitted from.
[en] In the development of the neutral beam injector for ITER experiment, the test facility SPIDER is going to be built. To measure the beam parameters, several diagnostics are used. One of them is the Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment (STRIKE) which measures beam uniformity, beamlet divergence, and stripping losses. This contribution gives an overview of the diagnostics dedicated to these measurements: thermal cameras, thermocouples, current sensors, and electrostatic sensors. The specifications of these diagnostics have been defined according to the results of electrostatic and thermal simulations. A failure modes and effects analysis has been performed during the design. Consequently the project of the STRIKE diagnostics has been optimized to reduce the possible failure risks.
[en] The SPIDER H−/D− ion source is currently in operation in the Neutral Beam Test facility (NBTF) at Consorzio RFX (Padova, Italy) to prove the possibility of generating up to 40 A of negative ions, with a maximum extracted current density of 350 A/m2 (H)/285 A/m2 (D) and a fraction of co-extracted electrons not greater than 0.5 (H)/1 (D). These performances are required for the realization of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector (NBI), which should deliver 16.7 MW to the plasma by means of negative ions accelerated up to 1 MeV and neutralized before being injected into the ITER tokamak. In order to obtain such high extracted current densities and low co-extracted electron fractions it is necessary to lower the work function of the surface of the acceleration system grid facing the source; this will be accomplished by coating the surfaces with Cs, routinely evaporated by three ovens. The functionality of the ovens has been tested at the CAesium oven Test Stand (CATS), hosted at NBTF. The test stand is equipped with several diagnostics, among which a Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (LAS) diagnostic. Using a tunable laser diode, the LAS diagnostic gets the high resolution absorption spectrum of the Cs 852 nm D2 line along a line of sight to measure Cs density at ground state. The paper describes the test stand and the LAS diagnostic, together with the characterization of the ovens to be installed in SPIDER. The paper will also study the systematic density underestimation effect caused by Cs ground state depopulation, as a function of laser intensity and of Cs density, in the perspective of correcting the density evaluation.
[en] The ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility (PRIMA-Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated) is planned to be built at Consorzio RFX (Padova, Italy). PRIMA includes two experimental devices: a full size plasma source with low voltage extraction called SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) and a full size neutral beam injector at full beam power called MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement). SPIDER is the first experimental device to be built and operated, aiming at testing the extraction of a negative ion beam (made of H- and in a later stage D- ions) from an ITER size ion source. The main requirements of this experiment are a H-/D- current of approximately 70 A/50 A and an energy of 100 keV. This paper presents an overview of the SPIDER beam source design, with a particular focus on the main design choices, aiming at reaching the best compromise between physics, optics, thermo-mechanical, cooling, assembly and electrical requirements.