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[en] Increasing numbers of galleries, museums and archives are including ink jet printed materials into their collections, and therefore displays. There is evidence that the instability of these prints is such that images can suffer deterioration in print quality or in extreme cases, a loss of information over an extended period of time. This is shorter than the period typically required for perceptible deterioration to occur in many other paper-based artworks. The image stability of prints is affected by a number of factors some of which have already been studied. However the role played by the ink solvent in the loss of image quality has yet to be explored. This paper will outline research being undertaken to investigate the effects of solvent content which may increase/promote the loss in image quality of the hard copy prints when stored or displayed under a range of temperature and humidity conditions.
[en] One of the approaches to reducing aftereffects of rock bursts is the dynamic support capable to stand strong dynamic rock pressure events in the form of seismic vibration and failure of adjacent rock mass. The article describes the support design procedure in use in hard mineral mines exposed to rockburst hazard. Different types of rock bolting and surface support are discussed from the viewpoint of energy absorption and yielding.
[en] We present the multiwavelength—ultraviolet to mid-infrared—catalog of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Ultra-Deep Survey field observed as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). Based on publicly available data, the catalog includes the CANDELS data from the Hubble Space Telescope (near-infrared WFC3 F125W and F160W data and visible ACS F606W and F814W data); u-band data from CFHT/Megacam; B, V, Rc , i', and z' band data from Subaru/Suprime-Cam; Y and Ks band data from VLT/HAWK-I; J, H, and K band data from UKIDSS (Data Release 8); and Spitzer/IRAC data (3.6, 4.5 μm from SEDS; 5.8 and 8.0 μm from SpUDS). The present catalog is F160W-selected and contains 35, 932 sources over an area of 201.7 arcmin2 and includes radio- and X-ray-detected sources and spectroscopic redshifts available for 210 sources.
[en] We present measurements of the specific ultraviolet luminosity density from a sample of 483 galaxies at 6 ∼< z ∼< 8. These galaxies were selected from new deep near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, Hubble UltraDeep Field 2009, and Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science programs. We investigate the contribution to reionization from galaxies that we observe directly, thus sidestepping the uncertainties inherent in complementary studies that have invoked assumptions regarding the intrinsic shape or the faint-end cutoff of the galaxy ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function. Due to our larger survey volume, wider wavelength coverage, and updated assumptions about the clumping of gas in the intergalactic medium (IGM), we find that the observable population of galaxies can sustain a fully reionized IGM at z = 6, if the average ionizing photon escape fraction (f esc) is ∼30%. Our result contrasts with a number of previous studies that have measured UV luminosity densities at these redshifts that vary by a factor of five, with many concluding that galaxies could not complete reionization by z = 6 unless a large population of galaxies fainter than the detection limit were invoked, or extremely high values of f esc were present. The specific UV luminosity density from our observed galaxy samples at z = 7 and 8 is not sufficient to maintain a fully reionized IGM unless f esc > 50%. We examine the contribution from galaxies in different luminosity ranges and find that the sub-L* galaxies we detect are stronger contributors to the ionizing photon budget than the L > L* population, unless f esc is luminosity dependent. Combining our observations with constraints on the emission rate of ionizing photons from Lyα forest observations at z = 6, we find that we can constrain f esc < 34% (2σ) if the observed galaxies are the only contributors to reionization, or <13% (2σ) if the luminosity function extends to a limiting magnitude of M UV = –13. These escape fractions are sufficient to sustain an ionized IGM by z = 6. Current constraints on the high-redshift galaxy population imply that the volume ionized fraction of the IGM, while consistent with unity at z ≤ 6, appears to drop at redshifts not much higher than 7, consistent with a number of complementary reionization probes. If faint galaxies dominated the ionizing photon budget at z = 6-7, future extremely deep observations with the James Webb Space Telescope will probe deep enough to directly observe them, providing an indirect constraint on the global ionizing photon escape fraction.
[en] We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions at z = 4–8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and the Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations near the Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1-2403 clusters. The combination of these surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6–1.2 × 106 Mpc3 over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for faint 18) and bright (M21) high-redshift galaxies. We select candidate galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 candidate galaxies at 3.5 8.5, with >1000 galaxies at 6–8. We measure both a stepwise luminosity function for candidate galaxies in our redshift samples, and a Schechter function, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end, our UV luminosity functions agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright candidate galaxies at 6. Our best-fit value of the characteristic magnitude is consistent with −21 at 5, which is different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift, and brighter at ∼2σ significance than previous measures at z = 6 and 7. At z = 8, a single power law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z = 6 and 7 an exponential cutoff at the bright end is moderately preferred. We compare our luminosity functions to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift, although a decreasing impact of feedback may also be possible. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate (SFR) density by integrating our observed luminosity functions to , correcting for dust attenuation, and find that the SFR density declines proportionally to (1 ) at 4, which is consistent with observations at 9. Our observed luminosity functions are consistent with a reionization history that starts at 10, completes at 6, and reaches a midpoint (x 0.5) at 6.7 9.4. Finally, using a constant cumulative number density selection and an empirically derived rising star-formation history, our observations predict that the abundance of bright z = 9 galaxies is likely higher than previous constraints, although consistent with recent estimates of bright 10 galaxies.
[en] We present galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMFs) at z = 4–8 from a rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) selected sample of ∼4500 galaxies, found via photometric redshifts over an area of ∼280 arcmin2 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS)/Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The deepest Spitzer/IRAC data to date and the relatively large volume allow us to place a better constraint at both the low- and high-mass ends of the GSMFs compared to previous space-based studies from pre-CANDELS observations. Supplemented by a stacking analysis, we find a linear correlation between the rest-frame UV absolute magnitude at 1500 Å () and logarithmic stellar mass () that holds for galaxies with . We use simulations to validate our method of measuring the slope of the –M UV relation, finding that the bias is minimized with a hybrid technique combining photometry of individual bright galaxies with stacked photometry for faint galaxies. The resultant measured slopes do not significantly evolve over z = 4–8, while the normalization of the trend exhibits a weak evolution toward lower masses at higher redshift. We combine the –M UV distribution with observed rest-frame UV luminosity functions at each redshift to derive the GSMFs, finding that the low-mass-end slope becomes steeper with increasing redshift from at z = 4 to at z = 8. The inferred stellar mass density, when integrated over –1013 M ⊙, increases by a factor of between z = 7 and z = 4 and is in good agreement with the time integral of the cosmic star formation rate density.