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[en] This paper studies the experimental and exergy analysis of solar still with the sand heat energy storage system. The cumulative yield from solar still with and without energy storage material is found to be 3.3 and 1.89 kg/m2, respectively for 8-h operation. Results show that the exergy efficiency of the system is higher with the least water depth of 0.02 m (mw = 20 kg). Competitive analysis of second law efficiency shows that the exergy efficiency improves the system by 30% than conventional single slope solar still without any heat storage. The maximum exergy efficiency with energy storage material is found as 13.2% and it is less than the conventional solar still without any material inside the basin.
[en] Composite materials are extensively being employed in the aerospace and automobile industries where they could have replaced conventional materials owing to their high strength/weight ratio. In this direction, research has been vigorous to help turn out composite materials of superior quality with enhanced capabilities. Hence, this paper presents an attempt at fabricating a Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite (HMMC) with Aluminium Alloy AA2219 reinforced with various weight fractions of Silicon Carbide (SiC), Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) and Wollastonite (CaSiO3) in varying proportions to achieve better wear properties and weight reduction for applications like cast iron disc brake rotor. A two-step Stir Casting process is selected to prepare the composites. Standard Orthogonal Array is used to determine the number of experiments that need to be conducted in order to study the impact of the reinforcement materials using interaction effect plots. Pin-on-Disc wear tests and hardness tests were carried out on all the samples and the effect of the reinforcements studied from the test data. SEM is carried out on the composition with the best wear behaviour. (paper)
[en] This work presents the experimental studies on the effect of mass stream rate of water (mf), phase change material and cover cooling of an inclined solar panel basin solar still (ISPBSS). Experimental results revealed that cooling the entire surface of the glass cover of ISPBSS with fully opened flow of water produced the maximum distilled water. On varying mf, the glass temperature is higher during the minimum mf. With increased mf from 7.35 to 13.32 and from 7.35 to 17.72 kg h−1, the glass temperature is almost equivalent to the ambient temperature with fully opened flow cover cooling technique. The reduced glass temperature enhanced the rate of condensation. Similarly, the hourly instant efficiency of the ISPBSS with fully opened cover cooling is higher as compared with the similar ISPBSS without and with partially cover cooling condition. The highest hourly instantaneous efficiency of ISPBSS with partially and fully opened cover cooling is found as 85% and 88%, respectively.
[en] Highlights: • Experiments are carried out to analyze the performance. • Baffles are placed in the absorber to increase the residence time of water with solar intensity. • Yield of fresh water from present solar still is 16.66% more than a conventional solar still. • Payback period of the present model is quicker. - Abstract: The main objective of this research is to increase the contact time of water in the basin to enhance yield of fresh water by using a semicircular absorber solar still with baffles. An experimental as well as theoretical investigation is carried out. The productivity and efficiency of present still are analyzed with the influence of the number baffles and the water flow rate. A good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results is observed. The results indicate that, the daily yield of present solar still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 16.66%. The outlet water temperature present solar still is high subsequently, it can be coupled with multi-state of solar stills to increase productivity. Therefore, the present solar still can be sufficiently extended for other continuous solar desalination systems. Economic analysis concluded that, the payback period of the present model solar still is quicker while comparing it with other solar still
[en] Highlights: • Yield of fresh water from conventional solar still is improved by salt heat energy storage. • Experiments are conducted to analyze the performance. • Payback period of present model with salt heat energy storage is 4 months. - Abstract: As there is a larger need for drinking water, expensive methodologies are employed in order to get portable drinking water. This work aims at improving the yield of freshwater from a conventional solar still using the different low-cost energy storage material. Theoretical and experimental studies are carried out to analyze the performance of a single slope solar still. From this study, it is observed that the yield of freshwater from the solar still with spherical ball salt storage achieves the maximum yield of 3.7 kg/m"2 as compared to a conventional single slope solar still with sponge and without any storage material as 2.7 and 2.2 kg/m"2 respectively. The deviations between theoretical and experimental values for with spherical ball salt storage, with sponge and conventional solar still are found as 16.1%, 9.7% and 4.0% respectively. Payback period of the present solar still is found as 4.3 months as it is quicker than other conventional single slope solar still. Finally, single slope solar still with spherical ball heat storage gives low cost of water.
[en] The use of MgO and TiO2 nanofluids at different concentrations was investigated annually to evaluate the distillate output of stepped solar stills. Nanofluids concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 0.2% in the present research work. Results confirm that the stepped solar still distillate output is increased by 45.8%, 33.33%, 20.4% and 4.1% with use of MgO nanofluids (0.2% and 0.1% concentrations) and TiO2 nanofluids (0.2% and 0.1% concentrations). The reason for higher distillate output of MgO nanofluid over TiO2 in stepped solar still is lower specific heat capacity and higher thermal conductivity. Finally, the energy payback time was also calculated, and it was still only 3 months for stepped solar stills with the use of 0.2% nanofluid concentration.
[en] Highlights: • We optimized the augmentation of condense by enhanced desalination methodology. • Parabolic concentrator has been integrated with solar distillation systems. • We measured ambient together with solar radiation intensity. - Abstract: This paper presents a modification of parabolic concentrator (PC) – solar still with continuous water circulation using a storage tank to enhance the productivity. Four modes of operation were studied experimentally: (i) PC-solar still without top cover cooling; (ii) PC-solar still with top cover cooling, PC-solar still integrated with phase change material (PCM) without top cover cooling and PC-solar still integrated PCM with cooling. The experiments were carried out for the cooling water flow rates of 40 ml/min; 50 ml/min, 60 ml/min, 80 ml/min and 100 ml/min. Diurnal variations of water temperature (T_w), ambient air temperature (T_a), top cover temperature (T_o_c) and production rate are measured with frequent time intervals. Water cooling was not cost effective, but adding PCM was.