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[en] In this study we determine the total (direct plus indirect) energy requirements of a given set of Brazilian households. We use a generalized input-output model in order to calculate the energy embodied in goods and services purchased by households of different income level in 11 capital cities of Brazil. Our results show that, on average, the total energy intensity of household expenditure increases with income level, although there is a considerable spread in energy intensities within income classes as well as disparities between regions of the country. The total yearly average energy requirement per household in Brazil in 1995-96 was 173.6 GJ (61% of which was indirect), with 32.8 GJ for the lower income level (66% of which was indirect), and 602.2 GJ for the higher income level (62% of which was indirect). Of this total average energy requirement, 76% was required for only three consumption categories: utilities (31%), mobility (28%) and shelter (17%). This analysis calls for the attention that has to be given not only to the direct energy consumption (as motor fuels and electricity, for example) but also to the consumption categories that encompass an important part of the indirect energy requirement of households in capital cities in Brazil
[en] Highlights: • Brazil holds reserves of high ash coal that can only be used in mine-mouth plants. • Water scarcity requires the use of wet or dry cooling systems in several regions. • The co-firing of 30 wt% eucalyptus is possible regarding the biomass availability. • Biomass cultivation would aggravate the water scarcity in several regions. - Abstract: Brazil has favorable edaphoclimatic conditions for the cultivation of biomass for energy. On the other hand, the country plans to expand its thermal power park using fossil fuels, including Brazil’s high ash coal. This study estimates the potential of co-firing biomass from energy forests in power plants fired with Brazilian coal in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, focusing on the limits given by biomass and water availability. Results show that the state holds coal reserves that could support a potential of approximately 8 GW. Referring to limits due to water availability, different outcomes were found for the various coal fields in Rio Grande do Sul. The Candiota coal field, which represents the most important coal field, holding a capacity of 4 GW, shows severe restrictions for water availability that would be aggravated by intense eucalyptus cultivation
[en] This article first reviews energy trends and energy policy objectives in Brazil. It then proposes and analyzes 12 policy options for advancing energy efficiency and renewable energy use. The policies are analyzed as a group with respect to their impacts on total energy supply and demand as well as CO2 emissions. It is determined that the policies would provide a broad range of benefits for Brazil including reducing investment requirements in the energy sector, cutting energy imports, lowering CO2 emissions, and providing social benefits
[en] This study focuses on some of the programs and measures Brazil has undertaken over the past two or three decades in order to mitigate economic or environmental problems, which have also had positive effects on the reduction of the country's carbon dioxide emissions. Results show that, in the year 2000 alone, some 11% in CO2 emissions from energy use in Brazil have been reduced compared to what would have been emitted that year had the actions reviewed here not been implemented in good time. As these actions have not been motivated as a strategy to curb global climate change, if their benefits related to avoided carbon emissions are not fully appraised in the near future, chances are that these policies may be discontinued. For instance, in the case of the business-as-usual scenario drawn up by the Ministry of Mines and Energy in 2001, the discontinuity of the policies analyzed here would result in CO2 emissions 20% higher by 2020, compared to what would happen were these policies kept over the long term. Therefore, the perspective presented here spotlights some of the hidden benefits of the programs and measures underway in the country, justifying their continuation or even intensification
[en] This study aims to quantify the environmentally sustainable and economically feasible potentials of agricultural and agro-industrial residues to generate electricity via direct combustion in centralised power plants in Brazil. Further, the energy savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential of replacing natural gas-based electricity by bioenergy have been assessed. To this end, a methodology has been developed based on an integrated evaluation, incorporating statistical and geographical information system (GIS)-based analysis, and a life-cycle-assessment approach. Results reveal that the environmentally sustainable generation potential is nearly 141 TWh/year, mainly concentrated in the South, Southeast, and Midwest regions of the country. Sugarcane, soybean and maize crop residues are the major feedstocks for available bioenergy. On the other hand, the economic potential is far lower, accounting to 39 TWh/year. The total GHG mitigation is nearly 18 million tonne CO2e and could reach 64 million tonne CO2e yearly, if the technical potential is considered. The gap between technical and economic potentials implies that constraints to bioenergy are not related to a lack of resources, but rather associated to economic, logistical, regulatory and political barriers. - Highlights: • Methodology to estimate technical, sustainable and economic potentials of bioenergy. • Mapping agricultural and agro-industrial residues per municipality at a country level. • Major potential comes from sugarcane, soybean and maize crops. • Economic potential accounts for about 1/3 of electricity consumption in Brazil in 2010.
[en] The production of electricity using concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is not yet possible in Brazil due to the technology’s high capital costs and the lack of a local industry. However, this study introduces a low-cost approach to CSP in Brazil by describing and simulating the operation of hybrid CSP plants that use sustainably managed biomass in Brazil’s semiarid northeast. Biomass hybridisation of a CSP plant with a solar multiple (SM) of 1.2 and a biomass fill fraction (BFF) of 30% can generate electricity at 110 USD/MWh. The high direct normal irradiation (DNI) and the availability of local low-cost biomass in Brazil’s semiarid northeast suggest the possibility of developing a CSP industry capable of supplying low-cost components under a national program framework, with the co-benefits of local job and income generation. For example, the deployment of 10 CSP plants of 30 MWe each would generate 760 direct and indirect jobs during the 24 months of plant construction and approximately 2100 annual jobs associated with the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the generating units. These 10 new units would generate additional local income on the order of USD 57 million. - Highlights: • CSP plant with supplementary biomass hybridisation is a strategic option for Brazil. • DNI and biomass availability in Brazil's semiarid can foster local CSP industry. • LCOE of CSP would cost 11 cent USD/kWh becoming competitive at solar auctions. • Co-benefits of local job and income generation due to CSP in Brazil are high.
[en] Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an effective technology for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from large-scale fossil fuel use. Nonetheless, it is not yet commercially viable on a large scale, and its inclusion into countries' energy planning agendas depends on realistic assessments of its emission reduction benefits. The use of CCS leads to energy penalties resulting from direct consumption of additional energy, and results in indirect CO2 equivalent emissions outside plant boundaries, due to both energy consumption and leakages. Accounting for these emissions allows for an evaluation of the mitigation benefits of CCS. This study performs a life-cycle assessment (LCA), with and without CCS, for a coal-fired power plant located in Brazil. Findings show that when indirect emissions are taken into account, a plant which captures 90% of its CO2 will have its CO2 equivalent emissions capture potential, based on a global warming potential metric with a 100-year time horizon, reduced to 72%. The advantage of the use of carbon capture towards climate change mitigation is reduced mainly as a result of an increase in CH4 emissions, significant in the coal-mining stage, an effect which is only taken into account when a LCA is performed. - Highlights: • A life-cycle assessment for a coal-fired power plant was performed. • Two cases are compared, with and without CO2 capture. • 90% capture potential is reduced to 72% due to indirect emissions. • LCA brings out relative importance of CH4 emissions in coal mining stage. • Implications for emission reduction and climate change mitigation policies
[en] The deepwater horizon accident may have shaken the sustainability ratings and indices credibility, but it also reinforced their importance. The objective of this article is to contribute to the improvement of corporate sustainability valuations by investigating if reserves profiles can affect the environmental risk exposure of an Oil and Gas (O and G) corporation. Data on reserves from 2009 to 2012 of 24 listed O and G companies were used to test six hypotheses, addressing how these profiles could relate to the four material environmental risks: climate change, accidents, sensitive area/access, water. The frequency with which companies reported these risks was evaluated using key word in context (KWIC) content analysis. Analysis of variance (Anova) and Student's t tests were applied to each of the hypotheses. This study shows environmental risks are embedded with the oil and gas reserves. We found the following relationships: (1) companies with heavy oil reserves report more exposure to climate change risks, particularly emissions control; (2) water is more of an issue with companies with higher bitumen and natural gas reserves; and (3) there is significant regional bias in the reporting of the environmental risk factors. These findings have broad implications for the financial industry, governments, investors and lenders alike. - Highlights: • We explored if reserve profile can also be used as a factor to evaluate environmental risk. • Companies with heavy oil reserves report more exposure to climate change risks. • Water is more of an issue with companies with higher bitumen and natural gas reserves. • There is significant regional bias in the reporting of the environmental risk factors
[en] Despite the impressive gains in available energy over the last 200 years, the associated benefits remain unevenly distributed. Bridging this divide only adds to the already daunting challenge of securing climate stabilization. In fact, efforts towards the former are more likely to conflict with the latter. To be able to address this dilemma, the relationship between energy consumption and human well-being, beyond its economic dimension, needs to be better understood. This paper aims to contribute to the emerging knowledge base, by examining this relationship using a proxy for human well-being that also considers its environmental and social dimensions. The ultimate goal of this paper is to investigate the potential incompatibility between efforts towards the achievement of higher collective well-being and those associated with climate stabilization. To this end, it provides estimates of the additional energy needed and its associated carbon emissions under different climate scenarios, and compares them with existing carbon budgets. Results indicate that even if new climate policies were adopted, emissions associated with higher well-being in all regions where improvements are needed could still reach up to one and a half times estimated 2 °C budgets, and even more so for lower temperature increase targets. - Highlights: • Selects proxy for well-being that considers all three sustainability dimensions. • Demonstrates possible incompatibility between climate stabilization and well-being. • Higher well-being could take up to two and a half times 2 °C carbon budgets. • Efforts to reduce the carbon impact of higher well-being most needed in Asia. • Advanced countries may need to make room for higher collective well-being emissions.
[en] The article discusses the following issues of the Brazilian cement sector: the Brazilian cement main types specification, cement quantities evolution produced in Brazil from 1987 to 1997, energy conservation in the cement production process with additives, energy economy cost estimates from the utilization of additives, and several technologies energy economy cost used in the industrial sector