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[en] This work describes the synthesis of diphosphorus-based polyurethane esters and their characterization by various methods. Polyurethane esters were synthesized from polyester polyols. To obtain polyester polyols, polyester was synthesized by the reaction of diphosphorus-based diol, maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride followed by the reaction with various diols like ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol and propylene glycol. Synthesized polyester polyols were characterized by the chemical analysis and instrumental analysis techniques. Polyester polyols were then reacted with different isocyanates like toluene diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate and hexamethylene diisocyanate to develop polyurethane esters. These polyurethane esters were mixed with organo-modified montmorillonite nanoclay which was taken in the proportion of 1, 3 and 5 wt.% and casted in a mold, and the formulations were coated on mild steel panels. Flame-retardant properties of casted films in the presence and absence of nanoclay were determined by limiting oxygen index analysis and UL-94 test methods. Various physical and mechanical properties of neat polyurethane ester and their nanoclay coatings such as pot life, drying properties, scratch hardness, pencil hardness, impact resistance, adhesion and flexibility were investigated. The chemical resistance properties of the coated panels were found out. Results of coating performances and mechanical properties are best with 3 wt.% nanoclay systems.
[en] Economic growth is increasing the threat of climate change. It is triggering growth in global energy demand, which increased by 2.1% in 2017, (compared with 0.9% the previous year). This has made it difficult for countries to achieve the Paris 2015 Climate Accord objective to keep the global temperature rise below 2 degrees Celsius in 2050. It is now unclear how governments will be able to announce increased ambitions in line with the goal of holding global warming at 1.5 degrees Celsius in 2050. World Energy Markets Observatory (WEMO) is Capgemini's annual thought leadership and research report that includes useful insights and trends that every energy and utility player should know about as they plan for the future of their business. This 20. edition is drafted mainly from public data combined with Capgemini's expertise in the energy sector. Special expertise on regulation, climate challenges, and customer behavior has been provided by research teams at De Pardieu Brocas Maffei and VaasaETT. The current edition monitors the main indicators of the electricity and gas markets in Europe, North America, Australia, and South-east Asia and reports on developments and transformations in these sectors and addresses six main topics that include: Climate change and regulatory policies, Energy transition, Infrastructure and adequacy of supply, Supply and final customer, Transformation, Financials, Key Findings. Oil prices rose as high as US$80/barrel for the first time since 2014; this represents an increase of nearly 100% since January 2016. Global natural gas demand grew by 3%, thanks in large part to abundant and relatively low-cost supplies. China alone accounted for almost 30% of growth globally. Gas prices rose in Europe, Asia and North America in 2017, but remained below the 10-year average. Despite being the major commodity least loved by analysts, global coal demand rose about 1% in 2017, reversing the trend seen over the last two years. This growth was mainly due to demand in Asia, almost entirely driven by an increase in coal-fired electricity generation. Digital adoption has huge potential to decrease costs in the industry and service sector - among others, IoT and Blockchain witnessed progressive adoption. Grids are strongly impacted by the increased share of intermittent renewables and grid operators will strongly benefit from digitization. However, cyber security still remains a big concern, but this will not prevent utilities from deploying their digital transformation plans.
[en] The 21. annual World Energy Markets Observatory (WEMO) reveals a world struggling to balance the desire for continued economic growth with the need to take deliberate and drastic steps against climate change. In 2018, global energy consumption rose 2.3 percent - nearly twice the average rate since 2010 - as driven by a robust worldwide economy. Despite the rapid growth of renewables in some regions, oil, gas and coal accounted for nearly three-quarters of the increase in total energy demand, their highest share in five years. As a result, greenhouse gas emissions climbed 2 percent globally, a significant break from the plateau of 2014 to 2016. While renewables remain the fastest-growing energy source worldwide, investments during the first half of 2019 declined 14 percent compared with the same period in 2018. Population growth, as well as a lack of anticipated technical breakthroughs over the next two decades, further contribute to a bleak medium- and long-term landscape. This year's WEMO report explores these issues in greater detail and presents new ideas for how utilities, policy-makers and private companies can embrace a long-term strategy that balances growth and change - and draws opportunity from crisis.
[en] This WEMO edition reviews an exceptional period with two distinctive phases: - In 2019 worldwide economic slowdown combined with energy transition measures resulted in some improvements regarding climate change objectives. However, the world was not on track to meet the 2015 Paris agreement objectives. - In 2020 our planet suffered from the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic crisis that followed, plunging our world into a long period of uncertainty. This year's World Energy Markets Observatory report explores how the energy sector can balance these competing priorities. Here we present practical ideas for how utilities, policy-makers and private companies can embrace a strategy that builds short-term resiliency while improving long-term sustainability.