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[en] Canada is located in latitudes where climate change is particularly felt, however in 2016, its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the residential sector decreased despite an increase in energy consumption. This improvement in the carbon intensity of the energies used makes it possible to compensate for the residential choices of a growing population. It is largely due to the dynamic normative framework of Natural Resources Canada encouraging non-state actors to develop more efficient products and buildings across the country. Beyond certifications and several incentive programs, local initiatives - most often carried out in partnership between actors - also play a dynamic role in this trend, which should increase in the coming years. (author)
[en] Rapidly evolving over the past decade, international maritime transport contributes significantly to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, exceeding those of the civil aviation sector. The establishment of the European Union MRV Regulation and the agreement adopted within the International Maritime Organization (IMO) can be a indicator of the beginning of a transition, provided that they lead to quantitative results. The past year has seen some interesting technological initiatives, driven by key industry stakeholders in the sector
[en] Accounting for over 29 % of Norway's overall CO2 emissions, transport-related emissions have fallen sharply since 2012. This trend is mainly due to the fact all stakeholders made significant efforts to progressively electrify both the vehicle fleet and maritime transport. Road freight and domestic air travel are already in line as the next upcoming challenges. Norwegian local governments' efforts in terms of public transit in urban areas have delivered real results but did not lead to a fall in transport demand at the national level. Only train journeys have recently decreased
[en] In the past decade, work on the concepts of vulnerability, resilience and adaptation became central in climate change literature. At the same time a growing number of studies have focussed on the influence of cognitive factors on decision-making processes, such as interpreting elusive concepts such as adaptation. Comprehension of adaptation has evolved considerably since its recognition as a response to climate change in the 90's by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Currently protecting systems from weather events (the 'adjustment adaptation' approach) is still the prevailing view in climate policies. Nevertheless, a shift toward a 'transformation adaptation' approach is being observed. This position would take better account of the complexity of existing systems and allow reexamining their mechanisms (institutional, technical, financial). This paper aims to analyze conceptual advances on adaptation across the five IPCC reports from 1990 to 2014. This contribution attempts to show that the prominence given to adaptation in the latest report (2014) reflects the cognitive difficulty of conceiving this concept, responds to the growing demand to facilitate its operationalization and confirms its relevance for a better understanding of the underlying complexity of climate change and the global environmental change issue. Pursuing reflection on the adaptation concept should certainly contribute to the emergence of a promising and interdisciplinary field of research
[en] This is the final report of a research project (ABSTRACT-colurba) which aimed at exploring decision mechanisms and organisational dynamics underlying the elaboration of strategies of adaptation to climate changes by using results of a field study among ten previously selected French local communities. The objectives were to determine priority local social and economic challenges associated with expected impacts of climate changes, to identify economic, organisational and cognitive barriers and levers (at the State, representative or collectivity level) to an optimal implementation of measures of reduction of local vulnerabilities to climate changes, to identify possible or already used diagnosis tools for the assessment of costs and of priority investments, and to make comparisons with other referenced cases and to assess possibilities to bypass barriers thanks to a dialogue with stakeholders. After a presentation of the project (objectives, institutional context, guides and methodologies, scientific approach for data acquisition and analysis), the report presents and discusses the obtained results regarding the place given to adaptation in local policies (PCET, the French local climate-energy plans), representations of adaptation, the inclusion of adaptation in the agenda of public climatic action, tools to make adaptation operational, barriers and levers to action implementation
[en] This first edition of the Adaptation Report offers a global overview of territorial adaptation actions: Conceptual and political history of adaptation in international climate negotiations; Progress of local and regional authorities' international cooperation initiatives on adaptation; 6 case studies on the adaptation of cities and regions, from all continents; 6 case studies on the adaptation strategies of economic sectors; Review of international funds available for adaptation. This Book tells the political and conceptual story of adaptation in international climate negotiations (section 1), before analyzing sub-national and local governments initiatives (section 2) through global reports and case studies. We then study adaptation issues raised and answers provided in six sectors of the economy (section 3), to finally conclude with an overview of financial flows and tools for adaptation (section 4).
[en] The industry is a very heterogeneous sector comprising many sub-sectors such as plastics, metallurgy, textiles and leather, agri-food, electronics, electrical equipment and machinery, wood and paper, chemistry and pharmacy, etc. Despite their diversity, these activities have in common the transformation of raw materials and energy - whose carbon footprint is relatively easy to evaluate - into much more complex finished or semi-finished products. They therefore have an important role to play, both in limiting their own emissions and in helping to de-carbonise world consumption
[en] The goal set by the Global Observatory of Non-State Climate Action, promoted by the Climate Chance Association, is to examine the impact of the actions taken by thousands of companies, communities and NGOs, sector by sector. We worked with a 'meta-report' approach, synthesising the studies conducted by various structures. Our first instinct was that, while many analyses exist, synthesis work isn't carried out as much, as the diversity and reliability of sources and data are disparate. In fact, as we imagined, this matter is considerable, and synthesising it is a complicated exercise. We therefore humbly present this first report, and we welcome all remarks and criticisms about data not used enough, analyses used too much or not highlighted enough. We just insist on the fact that all the data and analyses that have been taken back have been done by observatories, researchers, various actors, upstream of our own synthesis. This 'meta-report' therefore does not come up with anything and only seeks to offer, from this data and work, an easy to understand report of the evolution of recent CO2 emissions in the sectors and countries studied. In this book, we have chosen to work on documents by key sectors responsible for emissions, starting with the different areas of emissions on which the State reports to the UNFCCC are based. In the year 2017, which is characterised by the growth of global emissions, unfortunately no sector escapes this increase. However, there are weak signals (industrial processes, agreements between actors and so on) which show that these developments are not inevitable and that answers do exist. In this sense, our choice to complete global sector analyses in three key sectors (the power generation, mobility and land use sectors - LULUCF) through country studies has allowed us to fine-tune our approaches across the frameworks set by the actors' national and dynamic public policies. The successes achieved in some of these countries, with real reductions in emissions, clearly show that the effectiveness of non-state actions is also correlated with the efficiency of national or local public policy frameworks. We must also stress that the lack of data, especially in developing countries, is one of the weaknesses of climate action, as it cannot be credited if it is not quantified. In the areas of waste or agriculture, it is very difficult to measure the development of the action, and we need to go by secondary indicators, which makes the evaluation less robust
[en] Adapting to climate change and global change have become vital goals for all societies. These same societies are faced at times with unexpected meteorological phenomena that are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, including flooding, droughts and tornadoes. They are also having to wrestle with rising temperatures and the follow-on effects on the balance of ecosystems, the evolution of species, and animal and plant life, not to mention the development of human populations, their living conditions and social organisation. Although the capacity of ecosystems to adapt or convert has been demonstrated by studies on climate variations over time, the growing pace of some phenomena may well lead to a point of no return. In fact, with the global rise in temperature - caused by human activities in particular - we might already have reached this stage. This book, which consists of some fifty articles by scientists and experts, is unique. It makes us think about what lies behind the notions of adaptation and mal-adaptation, drawing on several disciplines, sectors and regional fields. It also highlights the checks and limitations of adaptation, as well as reflecting and suggesting ways of acting and adjusting. The contributions made to this work serve to reinforce the implementation of the Paris Climate Agreement (2015), especially the COP 23 climate conference (23. Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Bonn, 2017), where adaptation, its objectives and financing, are some of the priorities. This book is the result of a partnership between the CNRS and Comite 21. It was jointly edited by Agathe Euzen (deputy scientific director at the CNRS Ecology and Environment Institute); Bettina Laville (state councillor and Comite 21 chair); and Stephanie Thiebault (director of the CNRS Ecology and Environment Institute)
[en] This document first proposes synthetic versions of the contributions and debates of the sessions (opening session, presentation of the special 1,5 deg. C IPCC report, the question of the taking of the IPCC report results into account by national and local scenarios, the consequences of the 1,5 deg. C report on inter-territoriality and sector interactions), and of a round table (from communication to implementation). Then, contributions are proposed in Power Point presentations.