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[en] This school, dedicated to young researchers, will clarify our present knowledge of the X-ray sky and give the opportunity to learn about the observatories and tools which are available. The contributions have been organized into 3 issues: -) fundamental physics, -) X-ray and Gamma-ray instruments and analysis techniques, and -) astrophysical objects. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations
[en] The origin of the iron fluorescent line at 6.4 keV from an extended region surrounding the Arches cluster is debated and the non-variability of this emission up to 2009 has favoured the low-energy cosmic ray origin over a possible irradiation by hard X-rays. By probing the variability of the Arches cloud non-thermal emission in the most recent years, including a deep observation in 2012, we intend to discriminate between the two competing scenarios. We perform a spectral fit of XMM-Newton observations collected from 2000 to 2013 in order to build the Arches cloud light curve corresponding to both the neutral Fe Kα line and the X-ray continuum emissions. We reveal a 30 per cent flux drop in 2012, detected with more than 4s significance for both components. This implies that a large fraction of the studied non-thermal emission is due to the reflection of an X-ray transient source. (authors)
[en] The nebula powered by the Vela pulsar is one of the best examples of an evolved pulsar wind nebula, allowing access to the particle injection history and the interaction with the supernova ejecta. We report on the INTEGRAL discovery of extended emission above 18 keV from the Vela nebula. The northern side has no known counterparts and it appears larger and more significant than the southern one, which is in turn partially coincident with the cocoon, the soft X-ray, and TeV filament toward the center of the remnant. We also present the spectrum of the Vela nebula in the 18-400 keV energy range as measured by IBIS/ISGRI and SPI on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The apparent discrepancy between IBIS/ISGRI, SPI, and previous measurements is understood in terms of the point-spread function, supporting the hypothesis of a nebula more diffuse than previously thought. A break at ∼25 keV is found in the spectrum within 6' from the pulsar after including the Suzaku XIS data. Interpreted as a cooling break, this points out that the inner nebula is composed of electrons injected in the last ∼2000 years. Broadband modeling also implies a magnetic field higher than 10 μG in this region. Finally, we discuss the nature of the northern emission, which might be due to fresh particles injected after the passage of the reverse shock.