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[en] CT represents only 5% of all x-ray imaging and yet the radiation from CT examination is 40% to 67% of all medical radiation. The dose from single CT examinations can range from 1.0 mSv to 27.0 mSv. The radiation given by diagnostic CT is comparable to the low dose received by Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs. As per united nations scientific committee UNSCEAR 2000(2), CT contributes over 34% collective dose from diagnostic x-ray examinations in the world. This figure is much larger than this for developed countries, approaching as much as 50% to 70% even thought the frequency of CT examinations in these countries is of the order of 5 to 12%. It thus implies a small but statistically significant increased risk for developing cancer as a result of the radiation. The objective of the study were to investigate doses from CT examinations of adult and paediatric patients in brain CT examination and compare the doses with international standard as provided in DRLs. A total of 59 patients (paediatric and adults) were examined at the department of radiology, Al Ribat University Hospital-Khartoum. The mean age was 40.80 years for adults while the mean weight was 70.04 kg and the mean age for paediatric was 5.10 years while the mean weight was 20kg. DLP for adults were 1000.25 mGy.cm, 733.33 for paediatrics. The mean effective dose for adults patient was 0.48 mSv in rang (0.49-0.44)mSv, while for paediatric patients was 0.31 mSv in rang between (0.49-0.11) mSv. The DRL was 1120 mGy.cm, a value which is higher than the European Guidelines on quality criteria for computed tomography. The study has shown a great need for referring criteria, continuous training of staff in radiation dose optimization concepts. Further studies are required in order to establish a reference level in Sudan.(Author)
[en] Background hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatraemia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status, the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and patients in 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate(GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result in hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels(>1.1 mg/d1) compared to control group (p value= 000). In patients mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value=.002).Conclusion thus the kidney, in addition to the brain, heart and muscle, is an important target of the action of thyroid hormones.(Author)
[en] Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, is synthesized by the liver. Hepcidin binds to the iron exporter ferroportin to regulate the release of iron into plasma from macrophages, hepatocytes, and enterocytes. Aim: To study hepcidin expression in liver tissue of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and normal human liver biopsies and to compare its level with serum and liver iron indices. Patients and Methods: Liver biopsies from 66 patients (36 HCC and 30 CHC) were analysed as well as normal human liver biopsies obtained from 20 healthy liver transplant donors as a control group. Liver function tests, AFP, hepatitis markers, HCV-RNA levels, hemoglobin concentration and serum iron parameters were analyzed. Hepcidin mRNA was quantified in all liver biopsies of patients and controls by real-time PCR. Liver iron concentration (LIC) was evaluated and hepatic iron index (HII) was calculated by dividing LIC in mmol/gm dry weight by the patient's age. Results: The mean level for hepcidin mRNA in HCC, CHC and healthy controls were 2351±505, 5735±2403 and 16308±2194 copies/ml, respectively; with significant decrease in cancerous (HCC) than non-cancerous (CHC) and control liver tissues. The level was significantly lower in patients with multiple tumour masses. Hepcidin mRNA had a significant positive correlation with synthetic function of the liver (serum albumin and prothrombin concentration) and haemoglobin. In contrast, hepcidin mRNA was negatively correlated with parameters of iron stores as (serum ferritin and HII) and grade of liver fibrosis in both patient groups. Conclusion: The expression of hepcidin mRNA is decreased in liver tissues of CHC patients and more suppressed in the liver tissues of patients with HCC, suggesting that hepcidin expression appears to be appropriately responsive to iron status and disease progression in cirrhosis and hepato carcinogenesis.