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[en] Multifractal properties of wave functions in a disordered system can be derived from self-consistent theory of localization by Vollhardt and Wölfle. A diagrammatic interpretation of results allows to obtain all scaling relations used in numerical experiments. The arguments are given that the one-loop Wegner result for a space dimension d = 2 + ϵ is exact, so the multifractal spectrum is strictly parabolical. The σ-models are shown to be deficient at the four-loop level and the possible reasons of that are discussed. The extremely slow convergence to the thermodynamic limit is demonstrated. The open question on the relation between multifractality and a spatial dispersion of the diffusion coefficient D(ω, q) is resolved in the compromise manner due to ambiguity of the D(ω, q) definition. Comparison is made with the extensive numerical material
[en] Using the well-known “algebra of multifractality,” we derive the functional equation for anomalous dimensions Δ_q, whose solution Δ = χq(q–1) corresponds to strict parabolicity of the multifractal spectrum. This result demonstrates clearly that a correspondence of the nonlinear σ-models with the initial disordered systems is not exact.
[en] According to recent results, the Gell-Mann-Low function β(g) of four-dimensional φ4 theory is nonalternating and has a linear asymptotics at infinity. According to the Bogoliubov and Shirkov classification, it means the possibility of constructing a continuous theory with finite interaction at large distances. This conclusion is in visible contradiction to the lattice results indicating triviality of φ4 theory. This contradiction is resolved by a special character of renormalizability in φ4 theory: to obtain the continuous renormalized theory, there is no need to eliminate a lattice from the bare theory. In fact, such kind of renormalizability is not accidental and can be understood in the framework of Wilson’s many-parameter renormalization group. Application of these ideas to QCD shows that Wilson’s theory of confinement is not purely illustrative, but has a direct relation to a real situation. As a result, the problem of analytical proof of confinement and a mass gap can be considered solved, at least on the physical level of rigor.
[en] The conductance of finite systems plays a central role in the scaling theory of localization (Abrahams et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 673 (1979)). Usually it is defined by the Landauer-type formulas, which remain open the following questions: (a) exclusion of the contact resistance in the many-channel case; (b) correspondence of the Landauer conductance with internal properties of the system; (c) relation with the diffusion coefficient D(ω, q) of an infinite system. The answers to these questions are obtained below in the framework of two approaches: (1) self-consistent theory of localization by Vollhardt and Wölfle, and (2) quantum mechanical analysis based on the shell model. Both approaches lead to the same definition for the conductance of a finite system, closely related to the Thouless definition. In the framework of the self-consistent theory, the relations of finite-size scaling are derived and the Gell-Mann-Low functions β(g) for space dimensions d = 1, 2, 3 are calculated. In contrast to the previous attempt by Vollhardt and Wölfle (1982), the metallic and localized phase are considered from the same standpoint, and the conductance of a finite system has no singularity at the critical point. In the 2D case, the expansion of β(g) in 1/g coincides with results of the σ-model approach on the two-loop level and depends on the renormalization scheme in higher loops; the use of dimensional regularization for transition to dimension d = 2 + ε looks incompatible with the physical essence of the problem. The results are compared with numerical and physical experiments. A situation in higher dimensions and the conditions for observation of the localization law σ(ω) ∝ −iω for conductivity are discussed.
[en] A deterministic method for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional Boltzmann transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons has been developed and evaluated. The methodology used in this study for the time variable of the neutron flux is known as the improved quasi-static (IQS) method. The position, energy, and angle-dependent neutron flux is computed deterministically by using the three-dimensional discrete ordinates code TORT. This paper briefly describes the methodology and selected results. The code developed at the University of Tennessee based on this methodology is called TDTORT. TDTORT can be used to model transients involving voided and/or strongly absorbing regions that require transport theory for accuracy. This code can also be used to model either small high-leakage systems, such as space reactors, or asymmetric control rod movements. TDTORT can model step, ramp, step followed by another step, and step followed by ramp type perturbations. It can also model columnwise rod movement. A special case of columnwise rod movement in a three-dimensional model of a boiling water reactor (BWR) with simple adiabatic feedback is also included. TDTORT is verified through several transient one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional benchmark problems. The results show that the transport methodology and corresponding code developed in this work have sufficient accuracy and speed for computing the dynamic behavior of complex multi-dimensional neutronic systems
[en] Accepting the validity of Vollhardt and Wölfle’s self-consistent theory of localization, we derive the finite-size scaling procedure used for studying the critical behavior in the d-dimensional case and based on the consideration of auxiliary quasi-1D systems. The obtained scaling functions for d = 2 and d = 3 are in good agreement with numerical results: it signifies the absence of substantial contradictions with the Vollhardt and Wölfle theory on the level of raw data. The results ν = 1.3–1.6, usually obtained at d = 3 for the critical exponentν of the correlation length, are explained by the fact that dependence L + L0 with L0 > 0 (L is the transversal size of the system) is interpreted as L1/ν with ν > 1. The modified scaling relations are derived for dimensions d ≥ 4; this demonstrates the incorrectness of the conventional treatment of data for d = 4 and d = 5, but establishes the constructive procedure for such a treatment. The consequences for other finite-size scaling variants are discussed.
[en] Using a modification of the Shapiro approach, we introduce the two-parameter family of conductance distributions W(g), defined by simple differential equations, which are in the one-to-one correspondence with conductance distributions for quasi-one-dimensional systems of size Ld–1 × Lz, characterizing by parameters L/ξ and Lz/L (ξ is the correlation length, d is the dimension of space). This family contains the Gaussian and log-normal distributions, typical for the metallic and localized phases. For a certain choice of parameters, we reproduce the results for the cumulants of conductance in the space dimension d = 2 + ϵ obtained in the framework of the σ-model approach. The universal property of distributions is existence of two asymptotic regimes, log-normal for small g and exponential for large g. In the metallic phase they refer to remote tails, in the critical region they determine practically all distribution, in the localized phase the former asymptotics forces out the latter. A singularity at g = 1, discovered in numerical experiments, is admissible in the framework of their calculational scheme, but related with a deficient definition of conductance. Apart of this singularity, the critical distribution for d = 3 is well described by the present theory. One-parameter scaling for the whole distribution takes place under condition, that two independent parameters characterizing this distribution are functions of the ratio L/ξ.
[en] The previously-obtained analytical asymptotic expressions for the Gell-Mann-Low function β(g) and anomalous dimensions in the φ4 theory in the limit g → ∞ are based on the parametric representation of the form g = f(t), β(g) = f1(t) (where t ∝ g0-1/2 is the running parameter related to the bare charge g0), which is simplified in the complex t plane near a zero of one of the functional integrals. In this work, it has been shown that the parametric representation has a singularity at t → 0; for this reason, similar results can be obtained for real g0 values. The problem of the correct transition to the strong-coupling regime is simultaneously solved; in particular, the constancy of the bare or renormalized mass is not a correct condition of this transition. A partial proof has been given for the theorem of the renormalizability in the strong-coupling region.
[en] Upgraded Tevatron RUN-II luminosity has opened a new chapter in a modern heavy quark studies—a top physics: a dozen level of a Tevatron Run-I top events statistic now is being replaced by hundreds events. This work reviews a mass measurement of the top quark produced at = 1.96 TeV in p collisions at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) with the integrated luminosity samples up to 359 pb−1. The review covers the M(top) measurement using mainly the so-called template methods both in the “lepton + jets” and “dilepton” channels of top quark decay. The CDF top quark mass obtained in the lepton + jets mode is currently the world’s most precise single measurement of this important physical parameter. This work summarizes the essential results of the CDF top quark mass measurement achieved and published for the recent 2003–2005 period.