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[en] Fuel cell technology is one of the most promising, emissions free, energy conversion technology under renewable energy systems because of its wide ability in most of the commercial applications like electrical vehicles, building cogeneration and standby power supply. Mathematical models are trusted as important tools for designing and performance analysis of fuel cell based systems. Many mathematical models based on thermal, electrochemical and electrical steady states as well as dynamic have been reported in literature to evaluate performance of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, but all these models are complex and needs huge amount of data for modeling and performance testing. The present paper proposes simple, but more realistic MATLAB SIMULINK model for PEM fuel cell to evaluate its performance under different operating conditions. The performance of the proposed model is compared with single practical, 25 cm2 active area, PEM fuel cell for model validation. The presented model is also valid for a stack having any number of cells.
[en] The paper presents the design of state feedback control for a large pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) by developing a reduced-order model for the same. The nonlinear mathematical model of the PHWR is linearized around an operating point corresponding to full-power operation of the reactor. The linear model has 14 inputs and outputs each and 56 states. Application of the reduction technique leads to a simplified model characterized by only 14 states. This 14th-order simplified model is used to design a linear quadratic regulator, and state feedback gains for the original 56th-order system are obtained without any significant difficulty. The transient performance of the closed-loop system is tested by simulation of the original nonlinear model of the PHWR
[en] The photovoltaic–thermal (PVT) systems have been established for providing both electricity and heat using the existing photovoltaic (PV) system set-up. The PVT systems capture panel heat for some useful purpose. It is based on deploying a polymer sheet at the back of the PV panel to accommodate cooling water between the PV panel and the sheet to maximize the contact area between cooling water and panel. The present work compares the performance of a normal PV panel to that of the novel PVT panel. The PVT system is fabricated and experiments are conducted to evaluate electrical and thermal efficiencies. An improvement of 2.17% is observed in the electrical efficiency of the PVT panel in comparison with the normal PV panel. A brief cost analysis along with payback period calculations of the PVT panel is also included. (author)