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[en] In this article we present a method of constructing 'soft' scenarios applied to the wind power development in Finland up to the year 2025. We asked 14 experts to describe probable and preferable futures using a quantitative questionnaire and qualitative interviews. Wind power production grows in all scenarios but there were differences in the order of magnitude of 10. The growth rate of electricity consumption slows down in all scenarios. Qualitative arguments varied even within clusters, with wind power policy emerging as the main dividing factor. The differences revealed diverse values and political objectives, as well as great uncertainties in assumptions about future developments. These influence wind power policy and were also believed to have contributed to the slow development of wind power in Finland. Re-thinking of the Finnish wind power policy is recommended. The 'soft' scenario method is considered valuable in finding diverse views, constructing transparent scenarios and assisting energy policy making
[en] The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a highly prevalent public policy goal among European Union member countries. In the new White Paper on transport, the role of road freight transports in this is strongly emphasized. This far, however, the efficiency practices utilised in logistics firms are less studied. Drawing from policy goals and new survey data on 295 road transport firms our results show that hauliers are aware of the possible energy efficiency actions but lack the knowledge and resources to fully utilize them. Energy efficiency seems also to be unimportant for many shippers, so there are no incentives for hauliers to improve it. Examples from various countries show that clear energy efficiency improvements can be achieved with active cooperation between hauliers, shippers and policy makers. Such cooperation can be developed in Finland through the sectoral energy efficiency agreements. The novelty and the utility of these results allow scholars to answer important open questions in the national-level determinants of enhancing energy efficiency practices among road freight hauliers, and contribute to our understanding of how these can be fostered in public policies. - Highlights: ► Hauliers still monitor their fuel consumption with unsophisticated methods. ► Larger hauliers are more active in energy efficiency related issues than smaller ones. ► Hauliers are aware of energy efficiency actions, but lack knowledge of implementation. ► Finnish energy efficiency agreement provides a good framework for public policies. ► Companies that monitor and improve energy efficiency may gain competitive advantage.
[en] Highlights: • Present day methods deliver new knowledge about socio-ecological past of the lake. • Long term investigation reveals shifting goal setting of restoration over time. • Different, intertwined temporal scales complicate lake restoration endeavors. • Interannual weather variability influences restoration endeavors. • Prevailing understandings influence the anticipated futures of the lake. - Abstract: The history and future of the restoration efforts at the hypereutrophic southern Finnish lake, Tuusulanjärvi, are investigated. The interdisciplinary study is conducted within a modified DPSIR- framework, which allows us to both trace back and envision the future of the dynamics of the complex socio-ecological processes involved in restoration. The study covers the time period from the early 1970s up to 2030. The longitudinal study integrates environmental historical, limnological, and futures studies. The analyses reveal the multiple time scales of social and ecological processes present in long term restoration, the changing perceptions of and emphasis on restoration goals and outcomes over time, and the challenges that incidental and uncertain parameters, such as weather conditions, pose to sustainable and efficient restoration endeavors.
[en] This article compares the development of transport and energy use with a focus on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the EU15 countries between 1960 and 2000, and separately by each individual EU country between 1970 and 2000. Based on a review on the literature, immaterialisation can be defined as the reduction of energy intensity and transport intensity; dematerialisation can be defined as the reduction in carbon intensity of energy production and the carbon intensity of transport; decarbonisation can be defined as the reduction in (total and transport) carbon intensity of the whole economy. Although there is a clear pattern of reduction in energy intensity of the economy and carbon intensity of energy production, a similar pattern cannot be found in transport. Neither the transport intensity of the economy nor the carbon intensity of transport has been reduced. In particular, freight transport intensity has grown between 1985 and 2000. Data presented by country have shown even more variation. The EU15 countries were aggregated into six groups by cluster analysis to establish the different patterns on each of the three measures. It is concluded that the EU15 countries will have problems in achieving the EU White Paper target of decoupling transport growth from economic growth and the Kyoto target of reducing total CO2 emissions by 8% from the 1990 level between 2008 and 2012. However, there are some weak signals suggesting a more sustainable passenger transport system