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[en] Early dismantling and removal of decommissioned reactors is a basic policy of Japan's Atomic Energy Commission. With this policy in mind, the author reviews Japan's current nuclear safety regulations and Nuclear Damage Compensation Law as they relate to the potential decommissioning of nuclear reactors. A similar analysis is made of the Nuclear Damage Compensation Law with regard to its possible application to damage caused during the various phases of decommissioning. (NEA)
[fr]La politique reglementaire de la Commission japonaise de l'energie atomique prevoit que les reacteurs mis hors service devraient en principe etre declasses et demanteles sans attendre. Dans ce contexte, la presente communication analyse les dispositions des reglementations de surete nucleaire qui se rapportent aux declassements des reacteurs nucleaires. La legislation sur la reparation des dommages nucleaires est egalement etudiee dans l'optique de son application eventuelle a des dommages causes au cours des diverses phases du declassement
[en] Although nanomaterials are used in an increasing number of commodities, the relationships between their immunotoxicity and physicochemical properties such as size or surface characteristics are not fully understood. Here we demonstrated that pretreatment with amorphous silica particles (SPs) of various sizes (diameters of 10–1000 nm), with or without amine surface modification, significantly decreased interleukin 6 production by RAW264.7 macrophages following lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan stimulation. Furthermore, nanosized, but not microsized, SPs significantly enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α production in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. This altered cytokine response was distinct from the inflammatory responses induced by treatment with the SPs alone. Additionally, the uptake of SPs into macrophages by phagocytosis was found to be crucial for the suppression of macrophage immune response to occur, irrespective of particle size or surface modification. Together, these results suggest that SPs may not only increase susceptibility to microbial infection, but that they may also be potentially effective immunosuppressants.
[en] The structure and lattice compression of the β-O2 phase have been studied by synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments at 277 and 300 K. The pressure dependence of the lattice constants, a and c, obtained from a powder indicated anisotropic compressibility. a is almost three times as compressible as c. This large linear compressibility of a may be attributed to the antiferromagnetic interaction in the basal plane. Single-crystal analyses at 6.1 GPa and 300 K suggested that the oxygen atom is disordered with a threefold axis of symmetry