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[en] This paper presents and comments the results of an annual study of the status and evolutions of markets and jobs related to the main activities regarding the improvement of energy efficiency and the development of renewable energies in France. Data are given for the period 2006-2012. After a strong growth between 2006 and 2009, data reveal a lower but still positive growth. The evolution of jobs notably suffers from the decreased growth of the domestic market
[en] Since 2008, ADEME has regularly compiled an overview of markets and employment related to the main activities connected with improving energy efficiency and developing renewable sources of energy in France. The activities were selected partly according to their connection with ADEME's field of activity and partly according to their connection with the main policies determined by the Grenelle environment summit. Another factor taken into account was the existence of statistical data enabling the relevant markets to be regularly monitored. Since the very first version of the report, each time it has analysed some thirty market segments, all of which fall into one of three main sectors: - Energy efficiency improvements in residential accommodation: work to improve energy efficiency in existing housing (insulation of outside walls and replacement of windows and doors with more effective solutions), purchase of condensing boilers, energy efficient large household electrical appliances, and compact fluorescent lamps; - Energy efficiency improvements in transport systems: developments in urban public transport systems and railways, including equipment and sales of category A and B private vehicles; - Investments in the production of renewable energy (RE) and sales of renewably sourced energy. Over the years, several new markets have been added, including controlled mechanical ventilation systems (CMV), city bike schemes, etc. For this edition of the report, three new markets have been introduced, each with its own individual 'Market Report': Marine Renewable Energies, Heating Networks, and Hybrid and Electric Vehicles, while thermodynamic domestic boilers and sales of LED lamps have been added to markets for heat-pumps and compact fluorescent lamps respectively. The possibility of including markets related to energy efficiency improvements in industry and non-residential buildings was also investigated, but no regular statistical data enabling proper monitoring of these markets could be found. For each market segment there is a summary consisting of a few pages presenting the context and development of the regulatory framework, followed by developments during the period 2012-2013. There is also a brief round-up of information about the production base, the forecast for 2014 and the outlook for the future. A summary of quantified data for the years 2006-2014 and some elements of methodology are provided in an appendix to the main report. For each market segment, the report estimates the value of the principle equipment and supplies at manufacturers'/customs prices, retail margins, and, where appropriate, the cost of installing such equipment and supplies, as well as the cost of building transport infrastructures and renewable energy production units. Some markets in household equipment maintenance are also evaluated, in addition to sales of renewable energy. Wherever possible, the markets presented include both the domestic market and exports. For equipment and supplies, the share produced in France is estimated by taking foreign trade into account. Where jobs are included, the data refers to direct full time equivalent employment in the activities described. Indirect employment is not included. Thus, for example, the report on the production of bio-fuels does not include jobs in producing the agricultural raw materials used, or jobs in upstream activities, such as the production of agricultural inputs). The report is based on existing statistical data from a number of sources, including French and European statistics systems, surveys conducted on behalf of national bodies), annual reports by professional associations, and other sources such as one-off publications. All the series have been entirely recalculated afresh for each new edition of the report since 2008, if the data selected has been updated. In some cases, a change of source can result in a different method of calculation being used. For example, changes in the way company surveys are conducted and to the various standard industrial nomenclatures meant that revisions had to be made. For this edition, results for 2012 are considered to be provisional, as the 'production/jobs' ratios with respect to the most detailed activities, taken from the national statistics system, were not available for 2012 when the report was being written; similarly, the 2012 data from the 2013 Renewable Energies Report has so far only been estimated. Calculations for 2013 are primarily based on reports from professional organisations and foreign trade statistics. Data from annual production surveys and business accounts are not available, and nor are any detailed company data. The forecast for 2014 is based on interviews with professionals in the sector and ADEME engineers, and for the most part it has been calculated to reflect recent trends in markets and job ratios. More generally speaking, data used for this edition are those available at the end of June 2014. Thus, in particular, data from the 2013 renewable energies report, published in August 2014, which significantly revise some of the series published previously by the SOeS concerning the production of a number of renewable energies, have not been included, and neither have the statistical data on companies published in August 2014. The first part of this document comprises a summary of the main results i.e. changes in markets and jobs during 2012- 2014 and an assessment of the 2006-2013 period. The next three sections each contain the individual 'Market Reports' for one of the three main areas concerned. Each series of reports is preceded by a summary of the main changes observed in the area in question. These three sections are followed by annexes, one of which compares the scope of the activities and the methods used by the ADEME report with the scope and methods used by SOeS for some of the markets
[en] A first document is a guide which presents what needs to be known about the regulatory evolution of French climate plans. A first part describes how energy transition can be an opportunity for a territory, and outlines what would be the cost of inaction. A second part explains how the PCAET supports local action in the struggle against climate change and air pollution, and describes its articulation with other planning tools, urban planning documents, and other individual and voluntary actions for a sustainable development. The third part describes the different steps for action: preparation of objectives, questions to be addressed, realisation of a territory diagnosis, elaboration of a territorial strategy, definition and support of an action plan, and practical aspects. It also proposes a focus on the different sectors: housing and office building, transports, agriculture, forests and soils, industry and other economic activities, energy production and distribution and development of renewable energies, wastes. A second document briefly presents the regulatory evolution of climate plans within the frame of the law on energy transition and for a green growth, mainly at the destination of elected representatives. It presents this new legal framework for the PCAET, its role and ambitions, the opportunities and benefits it gives to elected representatives, and some examples. It briefly describes the articulation of the plan with other planning tools and approaches to sustainable development, indicates the main steps for the plan elaboration and implementation, how to validate a PCAET
[en] The objective of this publication is to clarify the new competencies of territorial communities, to explicit renewed tools (notably in terms of planning or possibilities confirmed by the law on energy transition), and to raise issues related to the new governance of energy and climate. For different issues (land planning, energy, buildings and energy management, mobilities, economic development, agriculture, wastes), this report recalls the relationship with climate, analyses the competencies and the main action levers, proposes returns on experience, identifies possibilities of project financing, indicates tools and documents of interest, and proposes recommendations.
[en] This publication aims at presenting methodological principles for the survey of renewable energies at a regional level. More precisely, it proposes simple and relevant indicators which allow renewable energy production to be assessed, and the evolution in time of the development of related sectors to be monitored. It also aims at identifying necessary data for the building up of indicators with a distinction between data provided by regional organisations and those to be searched for or re-built at a regional or infra-regional level. As far as data available at a regional level are concerned, it indicates available data sources and their characteristics, and currently used methods for the monitoring of renewable energies. Two types of renewable energy sector valorisation are addressed: electric power valorisation (photovoltaic, wind, hydroelectricity, and biomass), and thermal valorisation (solar thermal, deep geothermal, heat pump, thermal biomass)
[en] The first guide proposes a presentation of the benefits and limitations of the climate-related assessment of the budget (a tool to be developed, justification of a budget analysis through the prism of climate, presentation of the method, limitations), describes how to assess the budget of a community from the standpoint of climate (principles, scope definition, mitigation methodological guide, general principles of the adaptation methodological guide, results and follow-up to be given to the climate-related assessment of the budget). The second document discusses the peculiarities of adaptation with respect to mitigation, presents the three proposed steps (identification of potentially structuring budget share and expenditures for adaptation, identification of those covered by the adaptation approach of the community, determination of the budget share and expenditures which are actually adapted to take impacts of climate change into account), and briefly presents results of the 'adaptation' assessment. A technical appendix proposes a review of various budgetary items, describes an extra-accounting analysis, and the item assessment, how to assess various lines (building, transport infrastructures, vehicle procurement and maintenance, roads, food, waste management, energy and fuel procurement, energy infrastructures, building and infrastructure maintenance expenditures, and so on), how to perform an additional transverse analysis, and presents some examples of the 'mitigation' process
[en] Reporting on the climate action of cities and regions in the context of the pandemic and the renewal of national contributions to the Paris Agreement. Each year, the Climate Chance Observatory proposes a summary of the progress made in terms of climate action and published by cities and regions around the world. Although the absence of consolidated and comparable data remains a challenge, this does not mean that there is no action or mobilisation. The analysis of the remarkable evolution of emissions at the local level, the monitoring of the development of the main international initiatives led by networks of local authorities, and publications of academic and specialised literature, make it possible to draw global trends. The formulation, implementation and monitoring-evaluation of local climate actions is a complex process that requires both the support of States and a proper consideration of the inhabitants' needs. This is why our monitoring is accompanied by analyses of multi-level governance and the localisation of Sustainable Development Goals. The reduction of GHG emissions by European cities is encouraging. However, in a context of mass adoption of carbon neutrality objectives, the monitoring of the impact of local climate policies remains scattered and poorly consolidated, even at the national level. The mobilisation of local governments and the structuring of their climate action is continuing. Although international initiatives show a certain dynamism in Latin America, Europe and North Africa, they do not account for the action of Asian cities and regions. Even in times of Covid-19, local governments remain places of innovation and experimentation for climate policies. At the city level, the densification of services is now seen as the remedy to the health and climate crises. Few of the renewed national contributions to the Paris Agreement mention governance mechanisms that integrate local and sub-national governments, except in Latin America. Their sectoral approach to tackling local emissions reduction masks the potential of spatial planning and local governance. Multi-level governance in G20 countries: our first case studies (Germany, Canada, France, Brazil) show that few cities are subject to climate obligations, whose action relies on the disparate support of federal and federated states. The lack of harmonisation of monitoring methods makes it difficult to integrate the potential of cities into national strategies. Agenda 2030: after a few years in the adoption phase, local governments are embracing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to cushion the socio-economic shocks of climate policies. Despite the lack of funding, driven by the dynamic exchanges between scientists and decision-makers, adaptation to climate change is accelerating within regions and cities.
[en] After an interview and a contribution of experts about the social-political and climate context within the perspective of the adaptation of French territories to climate change, a first set of contributions addresses, reports and comments several regional studies. They more particularly address knowledge and communication stakes, the scale to approach adaptation to climate change, an action plan for south-eastern France, an example of appropriation of results in Languedoc-Roussillon, the study of mutations related to climate change for a better adaptation, a prospective approach from sequential scenarios to recommendations for action, an attempt to assess costs of adaptation to climate change in three sectors in Normandy (agriculture, health and tourism), and a decision aid for the first assessments of adaptation costs. Another set of contributions addresses the necessity of a debate on the stakes of adaptation for territories: articulation of territorial scales, passage from the awareness of vulnerability to adaptation actions, how to ensure an efficient taking into account of adaptation to climate change in public policies
[en] A first document indicates reasons for action, ways to implement actions, some examples for different aspects of a development project for the future of a territory. These actions concern the transformation of the territory with its inhabitants, ways to provide a good, sane and local food in canteens, the production of a clean energy, energy savings, the exemplary sustainable management of the territory, the reduction of building carbon print, the combination of sustainable development and economic development, the reduction of wastes, the valorisation of bio-wastes, the re-vegetation of districts, the growing of food, mobility, new mobility modes, greener delivery, the sustainable development of the territory, a clean air, the adaptation to climate change, sustainable procurement, the organisation or support of environmentally responsible events, education of young people to eco-citizenship. The second document indicates and comments various key figures related to the weight of energy in the budget of communes, the mobilisation of local capacities of energy production, sustainable development, waste management, the development of a sustainable mobility, the preservation of air quality, the commitment in circular economy, the protection of the environment and biodiversity, the adaptation to climate change, a territorial food transition, collective mobilisation, funding and local spin-offs. Actions sheets contain almost the same elements as those presented in the first document