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[en] In recent times, environmental, energy and climate policies have gained tremendously in importance. Not least, this is due to the latest research findings related to climate change and the resulting growing environmental awareness among people. However, policy approaches to combat environmental pollution and climate change differ both in their intention and in their economic impacts. For instance, command-and-control instruments such as performance or technology standards have different implications than market-based mechanisms such as permit trading of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, sectoral and regional characteristics play an important role when implementing and assessing policy measures. This applies both to the attainability of the targets and to the available instruments. The present doctoral thesis addresses this point and analyzes in several essays different policy instruments and their economic effects from global, regional and sectoral perspectives. In this respect, it deals with various, often very heterogeneous question: How are specific policy types implemented in different countries? What is the CO2 abatement potential in specific regions and sectors? What policy measures can be plausibly used to exploit this potential? How can technological developments and technology-directed policy interventions contribute to improve energy efficiency? Does the promotion of certain energy sources necessarily create positive production and employment effects? To answer these and further questions, different economic methods are applied that accommodate the particular problem, where special emphasis is put on computable general equilibrium modeling. The aim of this work is to contribute to the academic and political debate on measures to combat environmental and climate problems.
[en] The Asse salt structure is located in the Southwest of the Hercynian Mountains in Northern Germany. In geological times, compressive tectonic movements ruptured the overlying rock strata covering the salt layers of the Zechstein series deposited 250 million years ago. Consequently, the rheological salt ascended between the layers of the lower and upper Buntsandstein forming the steep Asse salt structure with 40 to 70 degree dip in the Northern and Southern flanks. The structure strikes over a length of about 4 kilometers West / East and is only a few hundred meters wide across strike at the top of the structure.
[en] The results of the project "Allocation for industrial installations in the EU ETS after 2020 - Analysis and further development of the direct and indirect carbon leakage regulation" are brought together in this overall report. The aim of the project was to scientifically analyze various aspects of the issue of carbon leakage in the upcoming further development of EU emissions trading for the period after 2020, and in particular the design of the carbon leakage regulations for the fourth trading period (2020 - 2030). The first of a total of three parts includes work on the definition of "carbon leakage", the investment behavior of relevant industries, and the design of the innovation fund envisaged for the 4th trading period of the EU ETS. The second part includes the comparative analysis of the climate policy ambition levels of the EU and its largest industrial trading partner countries created. It provides a comprehensive picture of the climate-related regulatory framework for energy-intensive industries in the EU's major trading partner countries. The third part includes work on indirect carbon leakage, including an overview of the design of aid to avoid this indirect carbon leakage in various EU member states and consideration of this compensation beyond 2020.
[de]Die Ergebnisse des Projekts "Zuteilung für Industrieanlagen im EU-ETS nach 2020 - Analyse und Weiterentwicklung der direkten und indirekten Carbon-Leakage-Regelung" sind in diesem Gesamtbericht zusammengeführt. Ziel des Projekts war die wissenschaftliche Analyse verschiedener Aspekte des Themas Carbon Leakage bei der anstehenden Weiterentwicklung des EU-Emissionshandels für die Zeit nach 2020, und insbesondere der Ausgestaltung der Carbon-Leakage-Regelungen für die vierte Handelsperiode (2020 – 2030). Der erste von insgesamt drei Teilen umfasst Arbeiten zur Begriffsdefinition „Carbon Leakage“, zum Investitionsverhalten relevanter Industrien, sowie zur Ausgestaltung des für die 4. Handelsperiode des EU-ETS vorgesehenen Innovationsfonds. Der zweite Teil beinhaltet die vergleichende Analyse der klimapolitischen Ambitionsniveaus der EU und ihrer größten industriellen Handelspartner-Länder erstellt. Sie liefert ein umfassendes Bild des klimabezogenen regulatorischen Rahmens für energieintensive Industrien in den wichtigsten Handelspartnerländern der EU. Der dritte Teil umfasst Arbeiten zu indirektem Carbon Leakage, unter anderem einen Überblick über die Ausgestaltung der Beihilfe zur Vermeidung dieses indirekten Carbon Leakages in verschiedenen EU-Mitgliedstaaten sowie die Betrachtung dieser Kompensation über 2020 hinaus.
[en] We assess recent Chinese climate policy proposals in a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model with a Chinese carbon emissions trading scheme (ETS). When the emissions intensity per GDP in 2020 is required to be 45% lower than in 2005, the model simulations indicate that the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2020, measured as the level of GDP and welfare in 2020 under climate policy relative to their level under business-as-usual (BAU) in the same year, is about 1%. The Chinese welfare loss in 2020 slightly increases in the Chinese rate of economic growth in 2020. When keeping the emissions target fixed at the 2020 level after 2020 in absolute terms, the welfare loss will reach about 2% in 2030. If China's annual economic growth rate is 0.5 percentage points higher (lower), the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2030 will rise (decline) by about 0.5 percentage points. Full auctioning of carbon allowances results in very similar macroeconomic effects as free allocation, but full auctioning leads to higher reductions in output than free allocation for ETS sectors. Linking the Chinese to the European ETS and restricting the transfer volume to one third of the EU's reduction effort creates at best a small benefit for China, yet with smaller sectoral output reductions than auctioning. These results highlight the importance of designing the Chinese ETS wisely.
[en] This contribution presents a Distributed MEMS Transmission Line (DMTL) phase shifter designed for 24 GHz and fabricated in Silicon-Bulk Micromechanic Technology. Using this technology enables to commonly suspend all capacitive loads on one movable plate and allows full range analog and homogeneous gap adjustment. The first available prototypes of the phase shifter are characterized to provide 5.4 0/mm differential phase shift at 24 GHz and to show 0.1 dB/mm insertion loss. An asymmetric coplanar signal coupler with a center frequency of 24 GHz and 10% bandwidth is used to contact the signal through the substrate of the phase shifter chip and back to a supporting printed circuit board. The normalized measured insertion loss of the coupling structure after simulated optimization is 0.13 dB - 0.17 dB
[en] We assess recent Chinese climate policy proposals in a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model with a Chinese carbon emissions trading scheme (ETS). When the emissions intensity per GDP in 2020 is required to be 45% lower than in 2005, the model simulations indicate that the climate policy induced welfare loss in 2020, measured as the level of GDP and welfare in 2020 under climate policy relative to their level under business-as-usual (BAU) in the same year, is about 1%. The Chinese welfare loss in 2020 slightly increases in the Chinese rate of economic growth in 2020. When keeping the emissions target fixed at the 2020 level after 2020 in absolute terms, the welfare loss will reach about 2% in 2030. If China's annual economic growth rate is 0.5 percentage points higher (lower), the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2030 will rise (decline) by about 0.5 percentage points. Full auctioning of carbon allowances results in very similar macroeconomic effects as free allocation, but full auctioning leads to higher reductions in output than free allocation for ETS sectors. Linking the Chinese to the European ETS and restricting the transfer volume to one third of the EU's reduction effort creates at best a small benefit for China, yet with smaller sectoral output reductions than auctioning. These results highlight the importance of designing the Chinese ETS wisely. - Highlights: • 45% Chinese carbon intensity target for 2020 implemented via emissions trading. • 1% GDP/welfare loss in 2020 and 2% in 2030 for a fixed emissions target after 2020. • 0.5 percentage points higher (lower) growth, increases (decreases) climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2030 by about 0.5 percentage points. • Similar macroeconomic effects for free allocation and full auctioning, but higher reductions in output under full auctioning in ETS sectors. • Restricted linking to EU emissions trading creates at best a small benefit for China
[en] This study analyzes energy intensity trends and drivers in 40 major economies using the WIOD database, a novel harmonized and consistent dataset of input–output table time series accompanied by environmental satellite data. We use logarithmic mean Divisia index decomposition to (1) attribute efficiency changes to either changes in technology or changes in the structure of the economy, (2) study trends in global energy intensity between 1995 and 2007, and (3) highlight sectoral and regional differences. For the country analysis we apply the traditional two factor index decomposition approach, while for the global analysis we use a three factor decomposition which includes the consideration of regional structural changes in the global economy. We first show that heterogeneity within each sector across countries is high. These general trends within sectors are dominated by large economies, first and foremost the United States. In most cases, heterogeneity is lower within each country across the different sectors. Regarding changes of energy intensity at the country level, improvements between 1995 and 2007 are largely attributable to technological change while structural change is less important in most countries. Notable exceptions are Japan, the United States, Australia, Taiwan, Mexico and Brazil where a change in the industry mix was the main driver behind the observed energy intensity reduction. At the global level we find that despite a shift of the global economy to more energy-intensive countries, aggregate energy efficiency improved mostly due to technological change