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[en] Highlights: • Radiation damage of Beas-2B cells was enhanced by macrophage-mediated bilateral bystander responses. • Expressions of TNF-α and IL-8 in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells were dependent on ERK and p38 pathways. • The neighboring U937 cells further increased the generation of TNF-α and IL-8 in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. • NF-κB dependent upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 was induced in the bystander U937 cells. - Abstract: Although radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been investigated for decades for their potential health risk, the underlying gene regulation is still largely unclear, especially the roles of immune system and inflammatory response in RIBE. In the present study, macrophage U937 cells and epithelial Beas-2B cells were co-cultured to disclose the cascades of bystander signaling factors and intercellular communications. After α-particle irradiation, both ERK and p38 pathways were activated in Beas-2B cells and were associated with the autocrine and paracrine signaling of TNF-α and IL-8, resulting in direct damage to the irradiated cells. Similar upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 was induced in the bystander U937 cells after co-culture with α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. This upregulation was dependent on the activation of NF-κB pathway and was responsible for the enhanced damage of α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. Interestingly, the increased expressions of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs in the bystander U937 cells were clearly relayed on the activated ERK and p38 pathways in the irradiated Beas-2B cells, and the upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs in co-cultured Beas-2B cells was also partly due to the activated NF-κB pathway in the bystander U937 cells. With the pretreatment of U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) or BAY 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor), the aggravated damage in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells could be largely alleviated. Our results disclosed novel signaling cascades of macrophage-mediated bilateral bystander responses that the release of TNF-α and IL-8 regulated by MAPK and NF-κB pathways synergistically increased cellular injury after α-particle irradiation.
[en] Objective: To evaluate the imaging appearances of abdominally retained crumpled gauze with US, CT and MRI and the changes with time. Methods: Eight rabbits were operated and crumpled gauze was put into in their abdominal cavity. US , plain and enhanced CT and MRI scan were performed on the day of operation, and 1 to 7 weeks after operation. The imaging appearances were compared with operation findings. Pathologic examination was done simultaneously. Results: Abdominally retained crumpled gauze was instantly adhesive with omentum and neighboring intestines tightly. Fibro-connective tissue membrane was produced at the adhesion site gradually, spreading out to enclose the crumpled gauze. The enclosure was finished completely in 3 to 4 weeks. Thickened membrane also invaded into the spaces within the gauze. The crumpled gauze was eventually infected. These changes could be revealed on US, CT or MRI scans. The US appearance exhibited a hyper echoic arc zone with broad clean acoustic shadow behind. It appeared as a soft tissue mass to CT and MRI scans. In early stage CT scan could easily show the gas within the crumpled gauze. CT and MRI enhanced scans showed only the enhanced membrane and no enhancement of the crumpled gauze. Conclusion: US, CT and MRI have quite characteristic appearances of the abdominally retained crumpled gauze, especially when combined imaging techniques were employed, which can lead to a correct diagnosis together with a history of operation
[en] Cobalt oxide (II, III) (CoO_x) was inserted as efficient hole-transporting interlayer between the active layer and top electrode in inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with titanium (diisopropoxide) bis(2, 4-pentanedionate) (TIPD) as an electron selective layer. The work function of CoO_x was measured by Kelvin probe and the device performances with different thicknesses of cobalt oxide were studied. The device with CoO_x exhibited a remarkable improvement in power conversion efficiency compared with that without CoO_x, which indicated that CoO_x efficiently prevented the recombination of charge carriers at the organic/top electrode interface. The performance improvement was attributed to the fact that the CoO_x thin film can module the Schottky barrier and form an ohmic contact at the organic/metal interface, which makes it a promising hole-transporting layer. (paper)
[en] Highlights: • The spray forming technology was used to fabricate ultra-high strength aluminum alloy. • The alloy under RRA state obtained the highest ultimate tensile strength of 732 MPa. • The effects of dislocations, solutes and precipitates etc., on yield strength were calculated. • Precipitation was characterized as the main strengthening mechanism for aging states. - Abstract: To obtain the optimal mechanical properties, several processes including spray forming technology, two passes hot extrusion and substantial heating treatments were operated on an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr alloy. The characterization methods used in this study include tensile tests, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and microstructure observations by optical microscope, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The typical characteristics were the refined grain, homogeneous precipitates and porosity in the as-deposited pre-forms. The ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, hardness and elongation improved significantly after two passes hot extrusion. A good combination of ultimate tensile strength at 704 MPa and elongation at 9.7% were achieved under peak-aged treatment. The best ultimate tensile strength was obtained at 732 MPa after re-aging and regression. It was main dimple fracture in the extruded and aging treated specimens while brittle fracture for the as-deposited. The secondary phases were main MgZn2 and Al3Zr dispersoids throughout all the states. The contributions of grain boundaries, dislocations, solid-solution and precipitates on the yield strength were analyzed using a quantitative equation.
[en] Utilizing solar energy for hydrogen evolution is a great challenge for its insufficient visible-light power conversion. In this paper, we report a facile magnesiothermic reduction of commercial TiO2 nanoparticles under Ar atmosphere and at 550 °C followed by acid treatment to synthesize reduced black TiO2 powders, which possesses a unique crystalline core–amorphous shell structure composed of disordered surface and oxygen vacancies and shows significantly improved optical absorption in the visible region. The unique core–shell structure and high absorption enable the reduced black TiO2 powders to exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity, including splitting of water in the presence of Pt as a cocatalyst and degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. Photocatalytic evaluations indicate that the oxygen vacancies play key roles in the catalytic process. The maximum hydrogen production rates are 16.1 and 163 μmol h−1 g−1 under the full solar wavelength range of light and visible light, respectively. This facile and versatile method could be potentially used for large scale production of colored TiO2 with remarkable enhancement in the visible light absorption and solar-driven hydrogen production.
[en] A facile methodology for improving the crystallization ability, rheological properties and microcellular foaming behaviors of poly (lactic acid)/low-density polyethylene (PLA/LDPE) blends through compatibilization was proposed. Poly (ethylene octene) grafted with glycidyl methacrylate (GPOE) as reactive compatibilizer was introduced into PLA/LDPE blends and the resultant PLA/LDPE/GPOE blends were foamed by supercritical CO2. Torque curves and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy results confirmed that GPOE reacted with PLA successfully. The crystallization ability and rheological properties of PLA was promoted obviously by the addition of LDPE and GPOE. The size of LDPE dispersion phase in PLA/LDPE blends decreased from 4.4 ± 0.1 to 1.2 ± 0.1 µm, owing to the compatibility effect. When the content of GPOE reach 8 phr, microcellular structure appeared in the PLA/LDPE/GPOE blending foam. An interesting flower-like cellular structure was observed in PLA/LDPE/GPOE blending foams, with the foaming temperature at 85 and 90 °C. Finally, the microcellular foaming mechanism for various PLA foams was proposed and clarified using schematic diagram.
[en] Flexibility method is a commonly used method to determine fracture toughness. In the experiment, it is necessary to prepare specimens with different crack lengths and other exactly same conditions, and carry out a large number of repeated experimental works. Given the above problems, this paper develops a flexibility determination method based on numerical simulation method to calculate the stress intensity factor and fracture toughness of concrete specimens. The results of the test example show that the use of the numerical simulation experiment method is practically feasible and effective to obtain the relation curve between the flexibility C and the crack length a of the concrete specimens and further get the stress strength factor and the fracture toughness under the ultimate load. (paper)
[en] Hot compression tests of an as-homogenized Al–7.82Zn–1.96Mg–2.35Cu–0.11Zr alloy were carried out on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-simulation machine at temperatures varying from 300 to 460 °C and strain rates ranging from 0.001 to 10 s−1. The true stress–strain curves exhibited four cases which represented the competition between work hardening and dynamic softening under different deformation conditions. Arrhenius-type constitutive equation was established to describe flow behaviors and provide the basis for calculating the industrial extrusion parameters. In this study, microstructure evolution of the studied alloy under different deformation temperatures, strain rates, and strains was observed by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. Dynamic recovery, continuous dynamic recrystallization, and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization occurred at high deformation temperatures and low strain rates. Based on processing map, the optimal processing domain was in the strain rate within the limits of 0.001–0.1 s−1 and deformation temperature ranges of 400–450 °C. The industrial extrusion process of the studied alloy was carried out on an extruder with capacity of 3500T, and the results of industrial extrusion were in accordance with the conclusions of hot compression tests. After T6 heat treatment, the studied alloy shows ultimate tensile strength of 700 MPa with elongation of 8.9%.
[en] Ultra-high strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy extrusion bars were processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at room temperature (RT). Post aging treatment was used to determine the optimum time of aging. ECAPed sample was divided into two types: near the upper channel (P1) and lower channel (P2). Micro-hardness and tensile tests showed that ECAPed sample reached peak aging state at 8 h, which greatly shortened the time to T6 state. The mechanical properties of ECAPed samples were also better than traditional T6 samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were used to study the phase transformation from extrusion bars to ECAPed samples. AlZnMgCu phase and Al2CuMg phase containing Zn can be found in ECAPed sample. Meanwhile, the coarsening phase Al7Cu2Fe decreased significantly. Optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to analyze the microstructure evolution such as shear bands and grain size during ECAP process. In P1, the shear bands with width ranging from 90 to 300 µm can be found. These shear bands were divided into many thinner shear bands and became intragranular deformation bands gradually in P2. Compared with P2, the average grain size in P1 decreased greatly and the precipitate η′ phase became finer and denser. Grain boundary strengthening and precipitation strengthening in P1 were much better than P2. The diameter of the channel should not exceed 20 mm when it used to press ultra-high strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy and the 3/4 parts near the top channel of product should be used to avoid unrefined grains.
[en] Through the construction of a suitable fitness function, the problem of parameters estimation of the chaotic system is converted to that of parameters optimization. In this paper, an optimization method, called CAS (chaotic ant swarm), is developed to solve the problem of searching for the optimal. Finally numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed method