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AbstractAbstract

[en] The applications of surface analytical techniques in the solution of technological problems in metalurgy and engineering are reviewed. Some important application areas such as corrosion, grain boundary segregation and metallurgical coatings are presented together with specific requirements for the type of information which is necessary for solving particular problems. The techniques discussed include: electron spectroscopies (Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis), ion spectroscopies (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Ion Scattering Spectroscopy), Rutherford Back-Scattering, nuclear reaction analysis, optical methods (Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry), ellipsometry, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, the Moessbauer spectroscopy and methods of consumptive depth profile analysis. Principles and analytical features of these methods are demonstrated and examples of their applications to metallurgy are taken from recent literature. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs., 112 refs

Original Title

Aplikovana povrchova analyza kovovych materialu

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English translation available from Nuclear Information Center, 156 16 Prague 5-Zbraslav, Czechoslovakia at US$ 10 per page.

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[en] The corrosion products Cu

_{2}(OH)_{3}Cl, Cu_{2}O, and CuCl_{2}were identified on the surface of copper plates after their four days treating in three different sodium chloride, sodium/magnesium, and sodium/calcium chloride solutions using X-ray diffraction powder analysis. However, the quantitative proportions of individual corrosion products differ and depend on the type of chloride solution used. Treating of copper plates only in the sodium chloride solution produced the mixture of corrosion products where Cu_{2}O is prevailing over the Cu_{2}(OH)_{3}Cl and CuCl_{2}was not identified. The sample developed after treating of the cooper surface in the sodium/magnesium chloride solution contains Cu_{2}(OH)_{3}Cl and CuCl_{2}prevailing over the Cu_{2}O, while the sample developed after treatment of copper in sodium/calcium chloride solution contains Cu_{2}(OH)_{3}Cl prevailing over CuCl_{2}and Cu_{2}O was not identifiedPrimary Subject

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S0010938X02001762; Copyright (c) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

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ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS, ALKALI METALS, ALKALINE EARTH METAL COMPOUNDS, CALCIUM COMPOUNDS, CALCIUM HALIDES, CHALCOGENIDES, CHEMICAL REACTIONS, CHLORIDES, CHLORINE COMPOUNDS, COHERENT SCATTERING, COPPER COMPOUNDS, COPPER HALIDES, DIFFRACTION, DISPERSIONS, ELEMENTS, HALIDES, HALOGEN COMPOUNDS, HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES, MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS, METALS, MIXTURES, OXIDES, OXYGEN COMPOUNDS, SCATTERING, SODIUM COMPOUNDS, SULFIDES, SULFUR COMPOUNDS, TRANSITION ELEMENT COMPOUNDS, TRANSITION ELEMENTS

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[en] The response matrix equations (RME) are analyzed from two points of view: (a) their computational feasibility and (b) their consistency with other methods used in reactor analysis. It is shown that RME can be derived directly from the weak form of the diffusion equation without the concept of partial currents, and hence, are also applicable to the description of phenomena, where partial currents have no physical meaning (for example, the conduction of heat). By splitting the high-order RME into a coupled system of single-order equations, the analysis of the convergence properties of the iterative solutions to RME could be greatly simplified. The derived explicit expressions for the convergence ratio were verified by numerical experimentation. As an illustration, the well-known International Atomic Energy Agency benchmark problem has been calculated by two two-dimensional response matrix programs at ASEA-ATOM, CIKADA, and LABAN. The relation of RME to finite difference (FD) equations has also been investigated. It was shown that for small mesh sizes, RME are computationally not feasible. For rectangular nodes, an algorithm called the ''vectorial model'' (VM) was developed, which reduces the amount of unknowns in RME by a factor of 2. This is a generalization to two- and three-dimensional nodes of the author's earlier results. An approximate reduction of VM to scalar equations (one unknown per node) has been discussed, and its relation to recent developments in nodal methods has been emphasized

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Nuclear Science and Engineering; v. 63(4); p. 457-492

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No abstract available

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Transactions of the American Nuclear Society 1976 annual meeting; Toronto, Canada; 13 Jun 1976; Published in summary form only.

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Transactions of the American Nuclear Society; v. 23 p. 198-199

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[en] The Response matrix method is presented as the solution of a particle transport problem in a composite (large) domain, V, consisting of subdomains (V

_{i}which can be treated locally. The Response Kernel is then defined as a probability distribution function for the occurence of the re-emergence of a particle which has entered and crossed a given node. A formal definition of the Response Kernel can be given in terms of the solution of the linear, integro-differential Boltzmann equation subject to a particular condition. A suitable discretization or projection of the Response Matrix equations is first performed so that the local problems involve pieve-wise, continuous bounday conditions. The kernals of the response operators in the Response matrix method become known only after a suitable boundary condition has been chosen. In the second step of the Response matrix algorithm, individual nodes of the system are allowed to interact, and the desired solution to the transport problem in the whole domain is constructed. The response matrix is defined for all regions that can be built from a single element if the response matrix for that element is known first. The response matrix method is developed historically from transport theory and from diffusion theory. The authors proceded to derive the method from first principles, and discuss its relation to other solutions for particle transportPrimary Subject

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Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology; ISSN 0065-2989; ; v. 13 p. 73

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[en] A rigorous solution of an initial value problem for the neutron transport equation in a purely absorbing sphere, the material of which is in radial motion, illustrates the application of the Vladimirov transformation to the solution of the Cauchy problem in spherical geometry. The resulting method is based on the solution of integral transport equations along characteristics drawn in the space-angle-time domain obtained via the application of ray-tracing techniques known from the algorithms applied for the calculation of collision probabilities. (Author)

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[en] Response matrix equations in two-dimensional geometry have been derived in the form of a set of coupled integral equations of the Fredholm type that have been solved by the moments method. The set of Legendre polynomials defined at the material interfaces has been chosen as the base for representing the partial interface currents and the response matrices. The method has been applied to the solution of the one-group diffusion equation and its convergence has been investigated in a series of numerical experiments, involving expansions of up to order 14. It turned out that the P

_{1}approximation should be adequate for the majority of the two-dimensional problems occurring in power reactor design. Furthermore, the response method has a substantially higher computer efficiency than the finite difference method, both in processor time and in storage locations. As a by-product, the nature of the singularities around edges and corners of material interfaces has been analyzed by numerical experimentation. (auth)Primary Subject

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Nuclear Science and Engineering; v. 58(2); p. 166-181

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No abstract available

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Transactions of the American Nuclear Society 1977 annual meeting; New York, NY, USA; 12 Jun 1977; Published in summary form only.

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Transactions of the American Nuclear Society; v. 26 p. 223-224

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[en] A definition of the effective number density of lumped isotope chains is proposed and its physical interpretation discussed. As the first integral of the system of depletion equations, it is claimed to be the most consistent argument in terms of which the pseudo-isotopes effective group cross-sections should be tabulated. (author)

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No abstract available

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American Nuclear Society meeting; San Francisco, CA, USA; 12 - 16 Nov 1979; CONF-791103--; Published in summary form only.

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Transactions of the American Nuclear Society; ISSN 0003-018X; ; v. 33 p. 324-325

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