Results 1 - 10 of 17
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[en] A principle that the shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloys can be remarkably improved through aligned precipitations of second-phase particles has been proposed and realized through ageing after pre-deformation at room temperature. A 79% shape recovery of an initial 5% strain in Fe-13.53Mn-4.86Si-8.16Cr-3.82Ni-0.16C alloy was attained by ageing at 1073 K after 10-20% tensile pre-deformation at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy and in situ scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the aligned Cr23C6 particles were produced by directional interfaces resulting from stress-induced martensite. The aligned particles subdivided grains into even smaller domains, thus reducing and even suppressing the collisions between martensite bands belonging to different smaller domains. The aligned particles caused the stress-induced martensite to form in domains. It is expected that through ageing after moderate pre-deformation, other aligned carbides and nitrides can be attained and the shape memory effect improved further
[en] Dy and Nb were added into the sintered NdFeB magnets with the aim of improving their magnetic properties and corrosion resistance. It was found that intrinsic coercivity of magnets is promoted whilst remanence is reduced as a result of Dy addition. Simultaneous addition of Dy and Nb not only gives rise to greatly improved coercivity, but also suppresses the undesirable effect of Dy on the remanence. The optimum magnetic properties were achieved when 1.0% Dy and 1.5% Nb were incorporated. Moreover, corrosion resistance of NdFeB magnets improves with the increase in the content of Dy and Nb
[en] Multitracers were prepared by 80 MeV/A 12C irradiation on thick gold foil at Heavy Ion Research Facility, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou, China. The bulk gold was removed quantitatively from the multitracer solutions with a MIBK-HCl solution. (author)
[en] This paper reports a computer simulation of martensitic transformation in both Cu-Zn-Al and Fe-Ni-C alloys by a 2-dimensional model. The influence of the imposed stress on the mechanical behaviour, the transformation kinetics, and the microstructure are illustrated for Cu-Zn-Al alloy. The study of transformation kinetics shows the following features: (1) in case of stress-free transformation, both alloys transform in burst, the transformation will go directly to near completion once a band can overcome the energy barrier. (2) the transformation temperature range spreads monotonically as the load is increased from 0 to 500 MPa. (3) Mf is nearly the same for the different tested loading conditions. Even if the assumption of elastic accommodation is not realistic for Fe-Ni-C alloy, we can analyse the influence of the volume change associated with the transformation on the local stress level and on the behaviour of the alloy. This volume change has no notable influence at the earlier stage of the transformation. It becomes larger as the transformed fraction increases. (orig.)
[en] An attempt has been made to develop a radiochemical methodology for the decontamination of a trace amount of radioactive cesium from a bulk amount of natural NaCl by liquid-liquid extraction (LLX). Open chain crown ethers, of amide type, namely, N,N,N',N'-tetraphenyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamide (TDD), N,N,N',N'-tetraphenyl-3.6,9-trioxaundecanediamide and N,N'-dinaphtyl-N,N'-diphenyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamide (DDD) have been chosen for this purpose. The separation factor between Cs and Na is the highest when 10-4M TDD dissolved in nitrobenzene is used as extractant and 0.4M picric acid at pH 5.0 is used as aqueous phase. About 60% Cs is extracted in this condition in a single run. (author)
[en] A ternary phase-field model was developed that is linked directly to commercial CALPHAD software to provide quantitative thermodynamic driving forces. A recently available diffusion mobility database for ordered phases is also implemented to give a better description of the diffusion behavior in alloys. Because the targeted application of this model is the study of precipitation in Ni-based superalloys, a Ni-Al-Cr model alloy was constructed. A detailed description of this model is given in the paper. We have considered the misfit effects of the partitioning of the two solute elements. Transformation rules of the dual representation of the γ+γ' microstructure by CALPHAD and by the phase field are established and the link with commercial CALPHAD software is described. Proof-of-concept tests were performed to evaluate the model and the results demonstrate that the model can qualitatively reproduce observed γ' precipitation behavior. Uphill diffusion of Al is observed in a few diffusion couples, showing the significant influence of Cr on the chemical potential of Al. Possible applications of this model are discussed.
[en] Bifunctional redox flow batteries (BRFB) possess functions of both electricity storage and electrochemical preparation, having the potential for increasing the electrical energy utilization. A V(III)/V(II)-glyoxal(O2) system has been developed. Separators of the BRFB play a key role in BRFB performance. A Nafion solution was sprayed on a gas diffusion layer (GDL) at the Nafion loading of 2 mg cm-2, and the GDL was then hot-pressed onto a Nafion115 cation exchange membrane, obtaining a modified separator. This separator not only prevents the crossover of vanadium but also has favorable conductivity, obtaining optimal charge and organic electro-synthesis performance of the BRFB. The effects of the concentrations of glyoxal and HCl on the performance of BRFB were also investigated. It is shown that the optimal concentration of glyoxal and HCl should be 1.2 and 3 M, respectively. As a result, the current efficiency of organic electro-synthesis is further increased. An acceptable discharge performance is achieved for a period exceeding 20 h at the current density of 20 mA cm-2. The average discharge voltage of 0.73 V and the coulombic efficiency of 66% are obtained. It is demonstrated that the principle of the BRFB is feasible. However, further experiments are needed to improve the performance
[en] Highlights: → Precipitation process of Cr23C6 particles depends on diffusion capacity of Cr atom. → Directional segregation of carbon atom can act as aligned Cr23C6 in improving SME. → Ageing temperature and ageing time greatly affect precipitation process of Cr23C6. → NbC carbides in a FeMnSiCrNiNbC alloy are prone to dispersively precipitate. - Abstract: Researches showed that the shape memory effect (SME) of FeMnSiCrNiC alloys can be remarkably improved through aligned Cr23C6 particles or carbon atom segregation inside grains. To further study on influencing factors in improving SME and aligned precipitation process of Cr23C6 carbide in a FeMnSiCrNiC alloy, effect of ageing temperature after tensile pre deformation on shape memory effect and precipitation process of Cr23C6 carbide in a FeMnSiCrNiC alloy was studied. The results showed that aligned precipitation of Cr23C6 carbide in a FeMnSiCrNiC alloy mainly depends on diffusion capacity and directional segregation of carbon and chromium atoms, namely on ageing temperature, ageing time and the amount of tensile pre deformation.
[en] A new bifunctional redox flow battery (BRFB) system, V(III)/V(II)-L-cystine(O2), was systematically investigated by using different separators. It is shown that during charge, water transfer is significantly restricted with increasing the concentration of HBr when the Nafion 115 cation exchange membrane is employed. The same result can be obtained when the gas diffusion layer (GDL) hot-pressed separator is used. The organic electro-synthesis is directly correlated with the crossover of vanadium. When employing the anion exchange membrane, the electro-synthesis efficiency is over 96% due to a minimal crossover of vanadium. When the GDL hot-pressed separator is applied, the crossover of vanadium and water transfer are noticeably prevented and the electro-synthesis efficiency of over 99% is obtained. Those impurities such as vanadium ions and bromine can be eliminated through the purification of organic electro-synthesized products. The purified product is identified to be L-cysteic acid by IR spectrum. The BRFB shows a favorable discharge performance at a current density of 20 mA cm-2. Best discharge performance is achieved by using the GDL hot-pressed separator. The coulombic efficiency of 87% and energy efficiency of about 58% can be obtained. The cause of major energy losses is mainly associated with the cross-contamination of anodic and cathodic active electrolytes
[en] In this paper, the damping mechanism model of Fe-Mn alloy was analyzed using dislocation theory. Moreover, as an important parameter in Fe-Mn based alloy, the effect of stacking fault probability on the damping capacity of Fe-19.35Mn alloy after deep-cooling or tensile deformation was also studied. The damping capacity was measured using reversal torsion pendulum. The stacking fault probability of γ-austenite and ε-martensite was determined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile analysis. The microstructure was observed using scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The results indicated that with the strain amplitude increasing above a critical value, the damping capacity of Fe-19.35Mn alloy increased rapidly which could be explained using the breakaway model of Shockley partial dislocations. Deep-cooling and suitable tensile deformation could improve the damping capacity owning to the increasing of stacking fault probability of Fe-19.35Mn alloy