Results 1 - 10 of 11
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[en] We present molecular line and 1.4 mm continuum observations toward five massive star-forming regions at arcsecond resolution using the Submillimeter Array. We find that the warm molecular gas surrounding each H II region (as traced by SO2 and OCS) appears to be undergoing bulk rotation. From the molecular line emission and thermal component of the continuum emission, we independently derived gas masses for each region which are consistent with each other. From the free-free component of the continuum emission, we estimate the minimum stellar mass required to power the H II region and find that this mass, when added to the derived gas mass, is a significant fraction of the dynamical mass for that region.
[en] We present new images of Arp 220 from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array with the highest combination of frequency (691 GHz) and resolution (0.''36 × 0.''20) ever obtained for this prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy. The western nucleus is revealed to contain warm (200 K) dust that is optically thick (τ434 μm = 5.3), while the eastern nucleus is cooler (80 K) and somewhat less opaque (τ434 μm = 1.7). We derive full width at half-maximum diameters of 76 × ≤ 70 pc and 123 × 79 pc for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively. The two nuclei combined account for (83−38+65 (calibration) −34+0 (systematic))% of the total infrared luminosity of Arp 220. The luminosity surface density of the western nucleus (log (σT4)=14.3±0.2−0.7+0 in units of L ☉ kpc–2) appears sufficiently high to require the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or a ''hot starburst'', although the exact value depends sensitively on the brightness distribution adopted for the source. Although the role of any central AGN remains open, the inferred mean gas column densities of (0.6-1.8) × 1025 cm–2 mean that any AGN in Arp 220 must be Compton-thick
[en] We present new Herschel-SPIRE imaging spectroscopy (194-671 μm) of the bright starburst galaxy M82. Covering the CO ladder from J = 4 → 3 to J = 13 → 12, spectra were obtained at multiple positions for a fully sampled ∼3 × 3 arcmin map, including a longer exposure at the central position. We present measurements of 12CO, 13CO, [C I], [N II], HCN, and HCO+ in emission, along with OH+, H2O+, and HF in absorption and H2O in both emission and absorption, with discussion. We use a radiative transfer code and Bayesian likelihood analysis to model the temperature, density, column density, and filling factor of multiple components of molecular gas traced by 12CO and 13CO, adding further evidence to the high-J lines tracing a much warmer (∼500 K), less massive component than the low-J lines. The addition of 13CO (and [C I]) is new and indicates that [C I] may be tracing different gas than 12CO. No temperature/density gradients can be inferred from the map, indicating that the single-pointing spectrum is descriptive of the bulk properties of the galaxy. At such a high temperature, cooling is dominated by molecular hydrogen. Photon-dominated region (PDR) models require higher densities than those indicated by our Bayesian likelihood analysis in order to explain the high-J CO line ratios, though cosmic-ray-enhanced PDR models can do a better job reproducing the emission at lower densities. Shocks and turbulent heating are likely required to explain the bright high-J emission.
[en] We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy of the most important far-infrared cooling lines in M51, [C II](158 μm), [N II](122 and 205 μm), [O I](63 and 145 μm), and [O III](88 μm). We compare the observed flux of these lines with the predicted flux from a photon-dominated region model to determine characteristics of the cold gas such as density, temperature, and the far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field, G0, resolving details on physical scales of roughly 600 pc. We find an average [C II]/FTIR of 4 × 10–3, in agreement with previous studies of other galaxies. A pixel-by-pixel analysis of four distinct regions of M51 shows a radially decreasing trend in both the FUV radiation field, G0, and the hydrogen density, n, peaking in the nucleus of the galaxy, and then falling off out to the arm and interarm regions. We see for the first time that the FUV flux and gas density are similar in the differing environments of the arm and interarm regions, suggesting that the inherent physical properties of the molecular clouds in both regions are essentially the same
[en] We search for variations in the disk of Centaurus A of the emission from atomic fine structure lines using Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy. In particular, we observe the [C II](158 μm), [N II](122 and 205 μm), [O I](63 and 145 μm), and [O III](88 μm) lines, which all play an important role in cooling the gas in photo-ionized and photodissociation regions (PDRs). We determine that the ([C II]+[O I]63)/F TIR line ratio, a proxy for the heating efficiency of the gas, shows no significant radial trend across the observed region, in contrast to observations of other nearby galaxies. We determine that 10%-20% of the observed [C II] emission originates in ionized gas. Comparison between our observations and a PDR model shows that the strength of the far-ultraviolet radiation field, G 0, varies between 101.75 and 102.75 and the hydrogen nucleus density varies between 102.75 and 103.75 cm–3, with no significant radial trend in either property. In the context of the emission line properties of the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 and the elliptical galaxy NGC 4125, the gas in Cen A appears more characteristic of that in typical disk galaxies rather than elliptical galaxies.
[en] Data from the Herschel Space Observatory have revealed an unusual elliptical galaxy, NGC 4125, which has strong and extended submillimeter emission from cold dust but only very strict upper limits to its CO and H I emission. Depending on the dust emissivity, the total dust mass is 2-5 × 106 M ☉. While the neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is extremely low (<12-30), including the ionized gas traced by [C II] emission raises this limit to <39-100. The dust emission follows a similar r 1/4 profile to the stellar light and the dust to stellar mass ratio is toward the high end of what is found in nearby elliptical galaxies. We suggest that NGC 4125 is currently in an unusual phase where evolved stars produced in a merger-triggered burst of star formation are pumping large amounts of gas and dust into the interstellar medium. In this scenario, the low neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is explained by the gas being heated to temperatures ≥104 K faster than the dust is evaporated. If galaxies like NGC 4125, where the far-infrared emission does not trace neutral gas in the usual manner, are common at higher redshift, this could have significant implications for our understanding of high redshift galaxies and galaxy evolution
[en] With the newly available photometric images at 250 and 500 μm from the Herschel Space Observatory, we study quantitative correlations over a sub-kiloparsec scale among three distinct emission components in the interstellar medium of the nearby spiral galaxy M 81 (NGC 3031): (1) I 8 or I 24, the surface brightness of the mid-infrared emission observed in the Spitzer Space Telescope 8 or 24 μm band, with I 8 and I 24 being dominated by the emissions from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains (VSGs) of dust, respectively; (2) I 500, that of the cold dust continuum emission in the Herschel Space Observatory 500 μm band, dominated by the emission from large dust grains heated by evolved stars; and (3) I Hα, a nominal surface brightness of the Hα line emission, from gas ionized by newly formed massive stars. The results from our correlation study, free from any assumption on or modeling of dust emissivity law or dust temperatures, present solid evidence for significant heating of PAHs and VSGs by evolved stars. In the case of M 81, about 67% (48%) of the 8 μm (24 μm ) emission derives its heating from evolved stars, with the remainder attributed to radiation heating associated with ionizing stars
[en] We investigate the far infrared (IR) spectrum of NGC 1266, a S0 galaxy that contains a massive reservoir of highly excited molecular gas. Using the Herschel Fourier Transform Spectrometer, we detect the 12CO ladder up to J = (13-12), [C I] and [N II] lines, and also strong water lines more characteristic of UltraLuminous IR Galaxies (ULIRGs). The 12CO line emission is modeled with a combination of a low-velocity C-shock and a photodissociation region. Shocks are required to produce the H2O and most of the high-J CO emission. Despite having an IR luminosity 30 times less than a typical ULIRG, the spectral characteristics and physical conditions of the interstellar medium of NGC 1266 closely resemble those of ULIRGs, which often harbor strong shocks and large-scale outflows
[en] We present ∼kiloparsec spatial resolution maps of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor (αCO) and dust-to-gas ratio (DGR) in 26 nearby, star-forming galaxies. We have simultaneously solved for αCO and the DGR by assuming that the DGR is approximately constant on kiloparsec scales. With this assumption, we can combine maps of dust mass surface density, CO-integrated intensity, and H I column density to solve for both αCO and the DGR with no assumptions about their value or dependence on metallicity or other parameters. Such a study has just become possible with the availability of high-resolution far-IR maps from the Herschel key program KINGFISH, 12CO J = (2-1) maps from the IRAM 30 m large program HERACLES, and H I 21 cm line maps from THINGS. We use a fixed ratio between the (2-1) and (1-0) lines to present our αCO results on the more typically used 12CO J = (1-0) scale and show using literature measurements that variations in the line ratio do not affect our results. In total, we derive 782 individual solutions for αCO and the DGR. On average, αCO = 3.1 M☉ pc–2 (K km s–1)–1 for our sample with a standard deviation of 0.3 dex. Within galaxies, we observe a generally flat profile of αCO as a function of galactocentric radius. However, most galaxies exhibit a lower αCO value in the central kiloparsec—a factor of ∼2 below the galaxy mean, on average. In some cases, the central αCO value can be factors of 5-10 below the standard Milky Way (MW) value of αCO,MW = 4.4 M☉ pc–2 (K km s–1)–1. While for αCO we find only weak correlations with metallicity, the DGR is well-correlated with metallicity, with an approximately linear slope. Finally, we present several recommendations for choosing an appropriate αCO for studies of nearby galaxies
[en] We present large-area maps of the CO J = 3-2 emission obtained at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope for four spiral galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. We combine these data with published CO J = 1-0, 24 μm, and Hα images to measure the CO line ratios, molecular gas masses, and instantaneous gas depletion times. For three galaxies in our sample (NGC 4254, NGC 4321, and NGC 4569), we obtain molecular gas masses of 7 x 108 - 3 x 109 M sun and disk-averaged instantaneous gas depletion times of 1.1-1.7 Gyr. We argue that the CO J = 3-2 line is a better tracer of the dense star-forming molecular gas than the CO J = 1-0 line, as it shows a better correlation with the star formation rate surface density both within and between galaxies. NGC 4254 appears to have a larger star formation efficiency (smaller gas depletion time), perhaps because it is on its first passage through the Virgo Cluster. NGC 4569 shows a large-scale gradient in the gas properties traced by the CO J = 3-2/J = 1-0 line ratio, which suggests that its interaction with the intracluster medium is affecting the dense star-forming portion of the interstellar medium directly. The fourth galaxy in our sample, NGC 4579, has weak CO J = 3-2 emission despite having bright 24 μm emission; however, much of the central luminosity in this galaxy may be due to the presence of a central active galactic nucleus.