Results 1 - 10 of 68
Results 1 - 10 of 68. Search took: 0.018 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Electricity has traditionally been supplied by vertically integrated companies providing generation, transmission and distribution services. Consumers have purchased a bundled commodity - delivered electricity - and there has been no need to price the components individually. This is no longer the case in competitive and unbundled electricity markets. One of the outstanding issues in the restructuring of the electricity markets is the way in which transmission costs are translated into tariffs. The efforts to create a single European electricity market are difficult to reconcile due to different national network pricing approaches. The European Commission's draft regulation on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges of electricity sets general principles for the pricing of international electricity exchanges. Nodal pricing provides incentives for an efficient use of generation and transmission assets. Experience shows that nodal pricing is workable, and its use may be expected to increase progressively. Postage stamp pricing does not generally provide adequate incentives for efficiency. However, inefficiencies may be small under certain conditions, and postage stamp pricing has the advantage of being relatively transparent and easy to implement. This paper presents an overview of objectives related to an effective design of transmission pricing approaches, of transmission pricing models and presents recent developments in Europe in this respect. Due to the great number of institutional designs of electricity market organisations, it will be difficult to design and implement a model of cross-border transmission pricing that results in a high degree of non-discriminatory international competition in electricity markets, a key objective of the Electricity Directive.(author)
[en] This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs
[en] The Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries (UN, 2001) states: The levels of production and consumption of energy in the majority of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are inadequate and unstable. This clearly indicates a situation of energy insecurity. Starting from an encompassing definition of energy security (a country's ability to expand and optimise its energy resource portfolio and achieve a level of services that will sustain economic growth and poverty reduction), it becomes quickly clear that energy security in LDCs is a complex topic with numerous interlinkages to other sustainable development objectives. This paper attempts to give an overview of issues related to energy security in LDCs by focusing on the role renewable energy can play in that context.(author)
[en] The first part of this conference book contains contributions to the following main topics: 1. Renewable energy and wind farms; 2. Web services for assessment of resources and impacts of renewable energies (EnerGEO/ENDORSE); 3. Smart grids; 4. Smart Nord (Workshop); 5. Energy management; 6. Green IT; and 7. ICT for life cycle assessment (LCA) and material flow analysis.
[en] Infrastructural improvements with a combination of interventional and open surgical procedures. Separate performance of interventional and open surgical procedures. Implementation of hybrid operating rooms. Intraoperative high-quality digital subtraction angiography. Best hygienic conditions Intraoperative improved image quality Improved patient management Increased patient safety Broadening of indications Major improvement from a medical standpoint Different implications from a management perspective Economic aspects challenging Exact planning of all aspects and effects is necessary. (orig.)
[de]Auswirkungen infrastruktureller Verbesserungen bei kombiniert offen-operativen und interventionellen Verfahren. Getrennte Durchfuehrung interventioneller und offen-operativer Verfahren. Einfuehrung von Hybridoperationssaelen. Hochwertige intraoperative digitale Subtraktionsangiographien. Optimale Hygienebedingungen Intraoperativ verbesserte Bildqualitaet Optimierte Prozessablaeufe in der Patientenversorgung Erhoehte Patientensicherheit Erweitertes Indikationsspektrum Aus medizinischer Sicht wuenschenswert und praxisreif Berufspolitische und prozessorale Implikationen Oekonomische Bewertung zwiespaeltig Genaue Planung aller Auswirkungen und Effekte vor Einfuehrung eines Hybridoperationssaals. (orig.)
[en] This paper discusses the use of high resolution intraluminal US for the study of nonvascular ducts and surrounding organs. Experimental methods and materials are presented and conclusions are given
[en] The second part of this conference book contains contributions to the following main topics: Sustainability; Sustainable simulation of manufacturing systems; Scaleable software solutions to support resource efficiency questions in SMEs: Concepts, applications, development; Environmental management information systems; Open government data, linked open data and eGovernment; GIS; Modelling environmental systems; Ecological systems; Environmental assessment and health. Furthermore it contains five contributions of the student workshop.