Results 1 - 10 of 11
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[en] The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the interactions of human serum albumin (HSA) with peimine (PE) and peiminine (PEN) in physiological conditions by fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and molecular modeling. PE and PEN were isolated from Bulbus Fritillariae thunbergii miq. The binding constants Ka and the number of binding sites n were calculated at different temperatures. Enthalpy change (ΔH), entropy change (ΔS), and Gibbs free energy change (ΔG) were also determined. The results suggested that quenching of HSA fluorescence by PE and PEN is a static process. Three-dimensional fluorescence, FT-IR, CD, and Raman spectra showed that the binding of PE and PEN to HSA can induce conformational changes in the latter. Moreover, important differences in binding ability were observed between PE and PEN, and PE showed stronger binding affinity to HSA than PEN. -- Highlights: • This paper provides the whole separation and purification process of peimine and peiminine and their detailed structure information. • A comparative study between peimine and peiminine shows the difference of their structure affects their binding ability to HSA. • FT-IR, three-dimensional fluorescence, CD and Raman spectra were used to explain the conformational changes of HSA reasonably. • Time-resolved fluorescence was used to distinguish the quenching mechanisms
[en] A chaotic system is bounded, and its trajectory is confined to a certain region which is called the chaotic attractor. No matter how unstable the interior of the system is, the trajectory never exceeds the chaotic attractor. In the present paper, the sphere bound of the generalized Lorenz system is given, based on the Lyapunov function and the Lagrange multiplier method. Furthermore, we show the actual parameters and perform numerical simulations. (general)
[en] The effect of Li2O content on the behavior of melting, crystallization, and molten structure for CaO-Al2O3-based mold fluxes was investigated in this article, through use of single hot thermocouple technology (SHTT), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SHTT results showed that the melting temperature range of the designed mold fluxes decreases and the crystallization of mold fluxes is inhibited first and then becomes enhanced when the Li2O content increases from 1 to 6 mass pct. The FTIR and Raman spectroscopy results suggested that Li2O could release O2− ions to break the complex Al-O-Al structural unit into Al-O− structure. Meanwhile, Li2O could also stabilize the structural unit of Si-O-Al by link aluminate and Q0Si structure through providing Li+ ions to merge into the network and compensate for the charges between Al3+ and Si4+. Besides, the XRD results indicated that the precipitation of LiAlO2 in molten slag would enhance the crystallization behavior of mold flux when Li2O content is over 4.5 mass pct.
[en] We investigate a kind of chaos generating technique on a type of n-dimensional linear differential systems by adding feedback control items under a discontinuous state. This method is checked with some examples of numeric simulation. A constructive theorem is proposed for generalized synchronization related to the above chaotic system
[en] Warm Absorbers (WAs), as an important form of AGN outflows, show absorption in both the UV and X-ray bands. Using XSTAR generated photoionization models, for the first time we present a joint fit to the simultaneous observations of HST/COS and Chandra/HETG on NGC 3783. A total of five WAs explain well all absorption features from the AGN outflows, which are spread over a wide range of parameters: ionization parameter logξ from 0.6 to 3.8, column density log from 19.5 to 22.3 cm−2, velocity v from 380 to 1060 km s−1, and covering factor from 0.33 to 0.75. Not all the five WAs are consistent in pressure. Two of them are likely different parts of the same absorbing gas, and two of the other WAs may be smaller discrete clouds that are blown out from the inner region of the torus at different periods. The five WAs suggest a total mass outflowing rate within the range of 0.22–4.1 solar mass per year. (paper)
[en] Active capillary dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI) is emerging as a compact, low-cost, and robust method to form intact ions of small molecules for detection in near real time by portable mass spectrometers. Here, we demonstrate that by using a 10 kHz, ~2.5 kVp-p high-voltage square-wave alternating current plasma, active capillary DBDI can consume less than 1 μW of power. In contrast, the power consumed using a sine and triangle alternating current waveform is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that for the square waveform to obtain a similar voltage for plasma generation. Moreover, the plasma obtained using a square waveform can be significantly more homogenous than that obtained using sine and triangle waveforms. Protonated dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and deprotonated perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) can be detected at about the same or higher abundances using square-wave DBDI mass spectrometry compared with the use of sine and triangle waveforms. By use of benzylammonium thermometer ions, the extent of internal energy deposition using square, sine, or triangle waveform excited plasmas are essentially the same at the optimum voltages for ion detection. Using an H-bridge circuit driving a transformer optimized to reduce losses, square-wave active capillary DBDI can be continuously powered for ~50 h by common 9 V-battery (PP3). .
[en] This paper reports that high-rate-deposition of microcrystalline silicon solar cells was performed by very-high-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. These solar cells, whose intrinsic μc-Si:H layers were prepared by using a different total gas flow rate (Ftotal), behave much differently in performance, although their intrinsic layers have similar crystalline volume fraction, opto-electronic properties and a deposition rate of ∼ 1.0 nm/s. The influence of Ftotal on the micro-structural properties was analyzed by Raman and Fourier transformed infrared measurements. The results showed that the vertical uniformity and the compact degree of μc-Si:H thin films were improved with increasing Ftotal. The variation of the microstructure was regarded as the main reason for the difference of the J−V parameters. Combined with optical emission spectroscopy, we found that the gas temperature plays an important role in determining the microstructure of thin films. With Ftotal of 300 sccm, a conversion efficiency of 8.11% has been obtained for the intrinsic layer deposited at 8.5 Å/s (1 Å = 0.1 nm). (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
[en] A possible heating effect on the process of high deposition rate microcrystalline silicon has been studied. It includes the discharge time-accumulating heating effect, discharge power, inter-electrode distance, and total gas flow rate induced heating effect. It is found that the heating effects mentioned above are in some ways quite similar to and in other ways very different from each other. However, all of them will directly or indirectly cause the increase of the substrate surface temperature during the process of depositing microcrystalline silicon thin films, which will affect the properties of the materials with increasing time. This phenomenon is very serious for the high deposition rate of microcrystalline silicon thin films because of the high input power and the relatively small inter-electrode distance needed. Through analysis of the heating effects occurring in the process of depositing microcrystalline silicon, it is proposed that the discharge power and the heating temperature should be as low as possible, and the total gas flow rate and the inter-electrode distance should be suitable so that device-grade high quality deposition rate microcrystalline silicon thin films can be fabricated
[en] This paper studies boron contamination at the interface between the p and i layers of μc-Si:H solar cells deposited in a single-chamber PECVD system. The boron depth profile in the i layer was measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy. It is found that the mixed-phase μc-Si:H materials with 40% crystalline volume fraction is easy to be affected by the residual boron in the reactor. The experimental results showed that a 500-nm thick μc-Si:H covering layer or a 30-seconds of hydrogen plasma treatment can effectively reduce the boron contamination at the p/i interface. However, from viewpoint of cost reduction, the hydrogen plasma treatment is desirable for solar cell manufacture because the substrate is not moved during the hydrogen plasma treatment. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
[en] A combined Ag nanoparticle with an insulating or conductive layer structure has been designed for molecular detection using surface enhanced Raman scattering microscopy. Optical absorption studies revealed localized surface plasmon resonance, which shows regular red shift with increasing environmental dielectric constant. With the combined structure of surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates and rhodamine 6G as a test molecule, the results in this paper show that the absorption has a linear relationship with the local electromagnetic field for insulating substrates, and the electrical property of the substrate has a non-negligible effect on the intensity of the local electromagnetic field and hence the Raman enhancement. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)