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[en] The full length of the isoflavone reductase-like gene (IRL) cDNA of Dendrobium officinale was cloned by using reverse transcription (RT) PCR combined with cDNA library, the IRL function was identified by Bioinformatics and prokaryotic expression analyses, and the IRL expression levels in the organs and tissues of D. officinale plants with different ages were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The results indicated that the full length of the cDNA of D. officinale IRL, DoIRL, was 1238 bp (accession no. KJ661023). Its open reading frame (ORF) was 930 bp which encoded 309 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 34 kDa, the 5 untranslated region (UTR) was 61 bp and the 3 UTR containing a poly (A) tail was 247 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of DoIRL, DoIRL, was forecast to contain a NAD(P)H-binding motif (GGTGYIG) in the N-terminal region, two conserved N-glycosylation sites, a conserved nitrogen metabolite repression regulator (NmrA) domain and a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER) domain, to hold the nearest phylogenetic relationship with the PCBER of Striga asiatica, and to share both 73% identity with the isoflavone reductases-like (IRLs) of Cucumis sativus and Striga asiatica. In Escherichia coli 'BL21' cells, the DoIRL cDNA expression produced a protein band holding the predicted molecular mass of 34 kDa. DoIRL expressed in all organs and tissues of D. officinale plants with different ages at comparatively low levels, and the expression level in the leaves of the two-year-old plants was the highest. (author)
[en] Highlights: • Activated carbon–ammonia multi-stage adsorption refrigerator was analyzed. • COP, exergetic efficiency and entropy production of cycles were calculated. • Single-stage cycle usually has the advantages of simple structure and high COP. • Multi-stage cycles adapt to critical conditions better than single-stage cycle. • Boundary conditions for choosing optimal cycle were summarized as tables. - Abstract: Activated carbon–ammonia multi-stage adsorption refrigeration cycle was analyzed in this article, which realized deep-freezing for evaporating temperature under −18 °C with heating source temperature much lower than 100 °C. Cycle mathematical models for single, two and three-stage cycles were established on the basis of thorough thermodynamic analysis. According to simulation results of thermodynamic evaluation indicators such as COP (coefficient of performance), exergetic efficiency and cycle entropy production, multi-stage cycle adapts to high condensing temperature, low evaporating temperature and low heating source temperature well. Proposed cycle with selected working pair can theoretically work under very severe conditions, such as −25 °C evaporating temperature, 40 °C condensing temperature, and 70 °C heating source temperature, but under these working conditions it has the drawback of low cycle adsorption quantity. It was found that both COP and exergetic efficiency are of great reference value in the choice of cycle, whereas entropy production is not so useful for cycle stage selection. Finally, the application boundary conditions of single-stage, two-stage, and three-stage cycles were summarized as tables according to the simulation results, which provides reference for choosing optimal cycle under different conditions.
[en] Numerous research studies have been conducted to access growth and meat characteristic differences between bulls and steers. In general, results have indicated that bulls grow more rapidly (15 to 17%), utilize feed more efficiently (10 to 13%) to an age or weight end point, and produce higher yielding carcasses with less fat and more muscle than steers. Steers have a slowly growth rate, more intramuscular fat, tenderer meat as compared with bulls. For further study on muscle gene expression profiles between bulls and steers, we constructed subtracted cDNA libraries between Longissimus muscles from three Chinese Simmental steers and three Chinese Simmental bulls with same age and same raising condition using suppression subtractive hybridization, genes that were differentially expressed in steer vs. bull Longissimus muscle were identified. More than 300 clones were randomly selected from each subtracted cDNA library. By PCR analysis, 223 positive clones were isolated from the subtracted cDNA libraries, by steers as Tester, bulls as Driver, respectively. By Longissimus muscles from steers and bulls cDNA as probes, high-throughput screening was carried out. We selected 84 differential expressed clones for further analysis, which showed that they represent 10 ESTs, all of them are known in cattle. Three functional genes, which are ACTG2, TPM2 and IGF-1, were chosen to do qRT-PCR to confirm the expression differentiation between steer LD tissue and bull LD tissue. The genes expressed in the former tissue were 1.96, 2.41, 2.89 times higher, respectively, than in the later tissue. These results implied that new candidate genes could be selected form the SSH library constructed in this research, and this could be a way to make the base of steer muscle special trait. (author)
[en] To identify tissue-specific expression gene in testicle of differential scrotal circumference bulls and analyze the function of the specific gene on the development of the bull's scrotum in this study. The DDRT-PCR and Reverse Northern Blot Analysis were used to identify tissue-specific expression genes in bulls with differential scrotal circumference. The experiment was designed sixty 6-month-old crossbreeds (Charolais with indigenous Fuzhou female). These were raised under the same age, cross generation, raising condition and management. When the feeding was over after 6 months, the scrotal circumferences of bulls were measured. Four bulls were selected and classified into two groups, and the difference of scrotal circumference is significant between the two groups (P < 0.01). A group was consisted of two bulls with larger scrotal circumference 26±2.5cm. The control group was two crossbreed bulls with smaller scrotal circumference 17±2.2 cm. When the scrotal circumferences were measured, the bulls were castrated by surgical operations. A piece of tissue (2 by 2 by 2 cm) was removed from the deeper area of the testis and stored in liquid nitrogen. A small section (0.5 by 0.5 by 0.5 cm) was used for total RNA extraction by using the TRIZOL reagent kit (GIBCO/BRL, Bethesda, MA, USA). The RNA was prepared for DDRT-PCR experiments and quantitative real-time PCR. The results were shown that six genes corresponded to genes of known or inferred function; either the bovine gene or the likely human orthologue and three genes or ESTs were unknown. Bos taurus similar to galactosidase, beta 1-like; Bos taurus similar to Kinesin heavy chain isoform 5C; Bos taurus similar to ankyrin repeat domain protein 15 isoform and Bos taurus ebd-P2 pseudogene were founded both highly expressed in bulls which had bigger scrotal circumference by qRT-PCR. Their functions may be involved with sperm maturation in the epididymis, sperm protection and preventing the ascent of microorganisms into the adjacent testes and responsible for converting immature sperm into competent functional cells, and movement of spermatozoa. (author)
[en] Highlights: • A sorption thermal energy storage device for domestic heating is presented. • The new design scenario with valve-less adsorber and separate reservoir is adopted. • The newly developed composite sorbent of zeolite 13X/MgSO4/ENG-TSA is used. • The temperature lift is 65–69 °C at 25 °C adsorption and evaporating temperatures. • The impregnated MgSO4 dramatically accelerates the temperature rising rate. - Abstract: A sorption thermal energy storage (TES) device for domestic heating is presented in this article. The TES device adopts the new design scenario with valve-less adsorber and separate reservoir to eliminate the large-diameter vacuum valve for vapor flow, which decreases the cost, reduces the vapor flow resistance, and improves the system reliability. The device is charged by electric heater, which can add much flexibility to the building energy system as well as contribute to the valley filling and peak shaving from the demand side management. The newly developed composite sorbent of zeolite 13X/MgSO4/ENG-TSA (expanded natural graphite treated with sulfuric acid) with the salt mass fraction of 15% in the zeolite 13X/MgSO4 mixture is tested and used in the TES device (denoted as XM15/ENG-TSA). Experimental results show that the TES device with XM15/ENG-TSA has the energy storage density of 120.3 kWh m−3 at 250 °C charging temperature and 25–90 °C discharging temperature. The temperature lift is as high as 65–69 °C under the adsorption and evaporating temperatures of 25 °C. The impregnated MgSO4 dramatically improves the temperature rising rate during the adsorption heat recovery process, but the specific energy storage capacity of XM15/ENG-TSA is similar to that of zeolite 13X/ENG-TSA. The effect of the impregnated MgSO4 suggests that MgSO4 can be used for low-temperature TES to relieve the self-hindrance of the hydration reaction.
[en] Sol-gel single-layer silica acid and base thin films on K9 glass substrates were prepared with the dip-coating method from acid and base catalyzed silica sols, respectively. Laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of each film was measured. Properties of the films were analyzed using Stanford photo-thermal solutions (SPTS), ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy to study the damage mechanism of the films under laser irradiation. The experimental results showed that compared with the silica base film, the silica acid film had larger absorption and smaller porous ratio, and it had smaller LIDT. The different damage morphologies of films were influenced by their different absorption and microstructure characteristics. The silica base film is more suitable for applications involving high power lasers