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[en] Hollow-structured carbon materials play a crucial role in research of biosensors, energy storage and nanomedicine as a kind of material with advantages like high surface area, tunable pore volume, excellent mechanical properties, and good biocompatibility. Herein, we developed a simple, facile and controllable method for synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulated in hollow carbon nanocages (FNHCs) with SiO2 nanospheres as a sacrificial template. Owing to the unique structure of multiple Fe3O4 nanoparticles cores integrated with N-doped carbon nanocages, the as-synthesized FNHCs exhibited greatly enhanced peroxidase mimicking activity with extremely high signal-to-noise ratio of ∼91 fold. Also, it was found that the FNHCs possessed a higher peroxidase-like activity than that of other similar-structured Fe3O4 architectures (e.g. Fe3O4@C NPs). The resulting steady-state kinetic curve demonstrated the enzymatic activity of FNHCs with classic Michaelis–Menton kinetics following a ping-pong mechanism. On the basis of the superior enzymatic activity, the FNHCs performed as a high-efficiency peroxidase mimic, realizing facile, label-free, highly sensitive/selective colorimetric detection of H2O2 and glucose. Furthermore, the colorimetric sensor successfully determined glucose in patients’ serum samples with high accuracy and precision, suggesting great potential for real applications. (paper)
[en] Highlights: • A SINDA/FLUINT simulation model of a TPCT charged with R245fa was established. • Good agreement was achieved between simulation model and experimental results. • The effects of relevant factors were investigated on performances of the TPCT. • Performances of the large scale TPCTs were investigated by the developed model. - Abstract: Two-phase closed thermosyphons (TPCTs) are simple and efficient heat exchangers. They have been explored for use in the renewable energy resource utilization marker and low grade thermal energy heat recovery systems. A transient simulation model for a TPCT was established by SINDA/FLUINT with low global warming potential Freon R245fa as working fluid. The TPCT was manufactured from a 40 mm inner diameter (Di), 3 m long smooth copper tube with a wall thickness of 2 mm. It consists of the evaporator, adiabatic and condenser sections with 1 m long for each section. The evaporator section was immersed in a water bath and the condenser section was cooled by recycled water. The effects of water bath temperature Tb and inlet temperature of cooling water Tcw,i were investigated by experimental and simulation methods. The results show the heat transfer rate Q and overall heat transfer coefficient U increase with the increase of Tb, and the decrease of Tcw,i. Good agreement between experimental and simulation results confirms the model is accurate and reliable. The influence of filling ratio (FR) and Di on the performance of TPCT was also investigated. The optimum FR for Di of 30 mm, 40 mm and 50 mm are 15%, 15% and 25% respectively. Moreover performances of 60–150 m long TPCTs were investigated based on the developed model.