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[en] A nano-TiO2 film from stable aqueous dispersion has been modified on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This nanostructured film exhibits an ability to improve the electron-transfer rate between electrode and dopamine (DA), and electrocatalyze the redox of DA. The electrocatalytical behavior of DA was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Combined with Nafion, the bilayer-modified electrode (N/T/GCE) gives a sensitive voltammetric response of DA regardless of excess ascorbic acid (AA). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at a fixed potential was performed at variously treated GCEs. The mechanism of the electrode reaction of DA at N/T/GCE and the equivalent circuits of different GCEs have been proposed
[en] Nano-Al2O3 is dispersed onto the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). This nanostructured film modified GCE exhibits a great enhancement to the oxidation of estradiol (E2), especially when adequate concentration of cationic surfactant such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is added into the sample solution. Due to the nanoparticle's unique properties and its inclination to selectively combine with some groups of bimolecules, as well as synergistic adsorption of E2 and CTAB on the electrode surface, E2 gives a more sensitive voltammetric response compared with bare GCE performed in the absence of CTAB. The lowest detectable concentration (3σ) of E2 is estimated to be 8x10-8 mol l-1 (accumulation for 2 min). The linear relationship between peak current and concentration of E2 holds in the range 4x10-7-4x10-5 mol l-1 (R=0.9932). The electrochemical properties of E2 on this modified electrode are investigated by linear scan voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and BET are employed to characterize the surface of the electrode modified with nano-Al2O3 film
[en] PTC (positive temperature coefficient) material is a kind of thermo-sensitive material. In this study, a series of novel PTC materials adapted to thermal control of electron devices are prepared. By adding different low-melting-point blend matrixes into GP (graphite powder)/LDPE (low density polyethylene) composite, the Curie temperatures are adjusted to 9 °C, 25 °C, 34 °C and 41 °C, and the resistance–temperature coefficients are enhanced to 1.57/°C–2.15/°C. These PTC materials remain solid in the temperature region of PTC effect, which makes it possible to be used as heating element to achieve adaptive temperature control. In addition, the adaptive thermal control performances of this kind of materials are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The result shows that the adaptive effect becomes more significant while the resistance–temperature coefficient increases. A critical heating power defined as the initial heating power which makes the equilibrium temperature reach terminal temperature is presented. The adaptive temperature control will be effective only if the initial power is below this value. The critical heating power is determined by the Curie temperature and resistance–temperature coefficient of PTC materials, and a higher Curie temperature or resistance–temperature coefficient will lead to a larger critical heating power. - Highlights: • A series of novel PTC (positive temperature coefficient) materials were prepared. • The Curie point of PTC material can be adjusted by choosing different blend matrixes. • The resistance–temperature coefficient of PTC materials is enhanced to 2.15/°C. • The material has good adaptive temperature control ability with no auxiliary method. • A mathematical model is established to analyze the performance and applicability
[en] Highlights: • The mechanism of decoupler for ICRF antenna is proposed. • Three candidate assembly positions for the decouper can be used. • The performance relies on the ohmic dissipation and the assembly position of decoupler. - Abstract: Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating has been adopted in EAST tokamak as one of main auxiliary heating methods. The ICRF antenna usually consists of multiple launching elements because of limited port and space of tokamak device. Mutual coupling between straps has been observed in previous EAST ICRF current drive experiments. Due to adverse effects of such mutual coupling, many issues induced by cross power cannot be ignored, such as power imbalance in feed lines, high voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), and etc. To restrain such mutual coupling, A device named decoupler was developed and tested in EAST ICRF system. According to the admittance matrix of load, three assembly positions (oscillation position, optimum position, and smooth position) along transmission line for the decoupler were taken into account and tested. The test results showed that ohmic dissipation in decoupler could not be neglected, which partly influenced the decoupling performance. The oscillation position and optimum position could restrain such adverse effects of ohmic dissipation and showed good decoupling performance. However, they cannot ensure the steady operation during H-mod due to the load variation. Finally, the smooth position has been adopted for EAST I port antenna because of steady decoupling performance comprised with engineering error and load resilience, which sincerely enhance the capability of system operation.
[en] Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is a necessary auxiliary heating method in EAST Tokomak nuclear fusion experiment. It is very important to develop a qualified anode power supply for the operation of ICRH system. The anode power supply based on pulse step modulation (PSM) technology was designed. The experimental data show that the design of the anode power supply is reasonable. (authors)
[en] Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating system in EAST is one of the most successful auxiliary heating tools for heating plasmas. Radio frequency (RF) transmitter plays an important role for improving performances of plasmas by using RF wave as a main subsystem of ICRF system. Based on the analysis of electric circuit and theory of transmission line and waveguide cavity, studies on input and output circuit of amplifier, impedance matching between the amplifiers, suppression of the parasitic oscillations and cooling of amplifier cavity were presented. A RF power of 1.5 MW for each was achieved in a matched dummy load during tests of RF transmitters. The RF transmitters operate stably and reliably on EAST and are proved to be competent in EAST ICRF heating experiments. (authors)
[en] The design, implementation, and characterization of an image-rejection double quadrature conversion mixer based on RC asymmetric polyphase filters (PPF) are presented. The mixer consists of three sets of PPFs and a mixer core for quadrature down conversion. Two sets of PPFs are used for the quadrature generation and the other one is used for the IF signal selection to reject the unwanted image band. Realized in 0.18-μm CMOS technology as a part of the DVB-T receiver chip, the mixer exhibits a high image rejection ratio (IRR) of 58 dB, a power consumption of 11 mW, and a 1-dB gain compression point of -15 dBm.
[en] The Yangtze River Economic Belt is one of the three national strategies of China, while flood risk is one of the most important concerns in the development of Yangtze River Economic Belt. In order to decrease the risks caused by floods, complete flood management system and adequate pre-arranged planning are desiderated to be researched in advance. This study considers two typical situations of flood risk, in which one is sluice-control situation in flood detention area and another is dike-break situation in flood-protected area, and proposes a framework for flood risk mapping. The results show that the losses caused by flood hazards are massive both in the two typical cases when extreme floods happen. The economic losses of different indicators are of great difference in flood detention area and flood-protected area, respectively. The framework effectively handles the complex boundaries in the Yangtze River Economic Belt and provides more accurate flood routing information. The evacuation plan module which has been incorporated in the framework also provides informative assistance for emergent action of evacuation under urgent condition.
[en] Yttrium-doped IZO (YIZO) thin films with different thickness have been prepared on soda-lime glass (SLG) and P-Si substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Structural morphology and optical properties of the films have been investigated. YIZO thin film transistors (TFTs) with the bottom-gate-structure are fabricated on P-Si substrates. The output and transfer characteristics of YIZO-TFT have been studied. It has been found that all YIZO thin films prepared at room temperature are amorphous, and the YIZO TFTs exhibit n-channel depletion mode. YIZO-TFT with active layer thickness of 20 nm shows an on/off ratio over 10"5, a sub-threshold swing of 2.20 V/decade at a low operating voltage of −1.0 V, and saturation mobility values over 0.57 cm"2/(V·s). (paper)
[en] The source system covering a working frequency range of 24 MHz to 70 MHz with a total maximum output power of 12 MW has already been fabricated for Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating in EAST from 2012. There are two continuous wave (CW) antennas consisting of four launching elements each fed by a separate 1.5 MW transmitter. Due to the strong mutual coupling among the launching elements, the injection power for launching elements should be imbalance to keep the k ‖ (parallel wave number) spectrum of the launcher symmetric for ICRF heating. Cross power induced by the mutual coupling will also induce many significant issues, such as an uncontrollable phase of currents in launching elements, high voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), and impedance mismatching. It is necessary to develop a power compensation system for antennas to keep the power balance between the feed points. The power balance system consists of two significant parts: a decoupler and phase control. The decoupler helps to achieve ports isolation to make the differential phase controllable and compensate partly cross power. After that, the differential phase of 0 or π will keep the power balance of two feed points completely. The first power compensation system consisting of four decouplers was assembled and tested for the port B antenna at the working frequency of 35 MHz. With the application of the power compensation system, the power balance, phase feedback control, and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) had obviously been improved in the 2015 EAST campaign. (paper)