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[en] Naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere. Besides we exposed to it every day. It found in our food, body, places we live, workplaces and in product we used. NORM elements such as uranium, radium and radon are dissolved in very low concentrations during normal reaction which is between water and rock. Uncontrolled work activitities involving NORM can lead to unwanted exposure and also risk to environment and human health. The general principles of protection against the hazard or ionizing radiation are by improved the best working practices at NORM working areas.
[en] This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.
[en] Qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples require good judgment from the analysts. These two aspects in gamma spectrometric analysis of Proficiency Test and solid radioactive waste samples for the determination of radionuclides are discussed. It is vital to judge and decide what energy peaks belong to which radionuclides prior to the creation of customized radionuclide library for the analysis of specific samples. Corrections due to radionuclide decay and growth, and the half-life assigned to a particular radionuclide in the uranium and thorium series are also discussed. Discussion on judgment to confirm the presence of thorium in food samples based on gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis is also provided. (author)
[en] NORM is the acronym for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. Besides, it is potentially includes all radioactive elements found in the environment. There is a lot of industries processing the material which contain NORM for the technological and economical progress. Long-lived radioactive elements which is for example like uranium, thorium and potassium and any of their decay products, such as radium and radon are examples of NORM. Therefore, it is important for the public to know about it. This book also deliver an understanding and awareness to the public as welll to those who involve in NORM technical field. The law, policies and safe management of radioactive wastes also been discussed by the authors.
[en] Interestingly, in this chapter. the authors discussed about radionuclied, radioactive half life, ionizing radiation and also radiation doses. Besides of the authors also explained on the uses of radiation in medicine industry which the most well known use is X-ray machine. There are numerous devices used to measure ionizing radiation. For example is such as thermoluminescent dosimeter or TLD which measuring the intensity of visible light emmited from a crystal in the detector when the crystal is heated. Meanwhile, survey meters are portable radiation detection used to check personal, equipment and facilities.
[en] Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM) originates in the earth crust. We come in contact with NORM everyday and it also become a part of our lives. There is also industries that processing the NORM materials to develop the country technology and economy. Therefore, it is important for us to learn and know some issues which related to NORM.
[en] This chapter covers on industries that related to Naturally Occuring Radioactive Material (NORM) such as ore and mineral mining, ore melting and also natural gas. In this topic, the authors explained on ore processing, products of mineral processing industry which consist thorium, uranium and non radioactive material. The uranium and thorium sources will only increase if there is more ore and mineral which contain reasonable radioactive materials concentration been procesed.
[en] Mineral and ore usually contain uranium and thorium series. This material able to produce such a strong penetration of gamma radiation. Therefore it is compulsory for the workers which involved in the radiation field use the Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD). This is because the TLD badges are used to detect radiation at levels that can be harmful to human. Besides of that the workers also need to wear the the right protective clothing to reduces the radiation exposure.
[en] This book is written based on 25 years authors experience especially in scientifc research of radiation and environmental radioactivity field at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia). Interestingly, from the authors experience in managing the services and consultancies for radiological environmental monitoring, it is also helpful in preparing the ideas for this book. Although this book focuses on Malaysian radiation information environmental radioactivity, but the data collected by the international bodies are also included in this book.