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[en] By using McMillan's method, the superconducting proximity effect between a nonsimple metal thin film with negative U centers and a thin film of BCS superconductor is analyzed theoretically. It is shown that the superconductivity of this kind of sandwich can be enhanced by this proximity effect. In order to raise T/sub c/, it is desirable to investigate this kind of superconducting materials consisting of S-U multilayers
[en] A human error is one of the factors which cause an accident in NPP. The in-situ psychological background plays an important role in inducing it. The author analyzes the structure of one's psychological background when one is at work, and gives a few examples of typical psychological background resulting in human errors. Finally it points out that the fundamental way to eliminate the unfavourable psychological background of safety production is to establish the safety culture in NPP along with its characteristics
[en] Highlights: • Coir fibers were used as mixture materials for production of straw particleboard. • Alkali treatment was an effective method for improving wettability of rice straw. • The MOR and MOE of RC particleboards decreased with coir fibers content increased. • The addition of coir fibers significantly improved the IB and TS of RC boards. • PF-bonded boards with optimal R/C ratio can be used for load-bearing application. - Abstract: Novel lignocellulosic hybrid particleboard composites with low cost and high performance using the mixture of rice straws and coir fibers were developed in this work. NaOH (sodium hydroxide) aqueous solution was used to remove the wax and silica layer of rice straw surface. The effects of rice straws/coir fibers (R/C) mass ratios on the physical (thickness swelling) and mechanical (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and internal bond strength) properties of particleboard composites were investigated. The results show that NaOH treatment was an effective method for improving wettability of rice straw surface with smaller contact angles and larger diffusivity–permeability constant. The SEM (scanning electron microscope) observation also gave some evidences such as more rough surface and less number of silica cells after NaOH treatment for improving wettability of rice straw surface. The coir fibers content had a significant negative linear effect on the bending properties and thickness swelling, but a significant positive linear effect on the internal bonding strength due to the lower wax and holocellulose content of coir fiber. When no diisocyanate resin applied, the particleboard composites made with only phenol formaldehyde resin at the optimal R/C ratio satisfied the requirements for load-bearing boards used in dry conditions based on Chinese Standard, indicated that the mixture of rice straws and coir fibers to make high quality particleboard composites was a cost-effective and environment friendly approach
[en] Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sol–gel method was adopted to prepare HCB/TiO2. • Its adsorption performance of Cr(VI) was investigated. • The maximum adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) was at 27.33 mg g−1 in an acidic medium. • The value is worth comparable with other low-cost adsorbents. - Abstract: Sol–gel method was adopted to prepare HCB/TiO2 and its adsorption ability of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), and removal from aqueous solution were investigated. The samples were characterized by Power X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) which showed that the TiO2 was deposited on the surface of HCB. FTIR was used to identify the changes of the surface functional groups before and after adsorption. Potentiometric titration method was used to characterize the zero charge (pHpzc) characteristics of the surface of HCB/TiO2 which showed more acidic functional groups containing. Batch experiments showed that initial pH, absorbent dosage, contact time and initial concentration of Cr(VI) were important parameters for the Cr(VI) adsorption studies. The Freundlich isotherm model better reflected the experimental data better. Cr(VI) adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model, which illustrated chemical adsorption. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG), changes in enthalpy change (ΔH) and changes in entropy change (ΔS) were also evaluated. Negative value of free energy occurred at temperature range of 25–45 °C, so Cr(VI) adsorption by HCB/TiO2 is spontaneous. Desorption results showed that the adsorption capacity could maintain 80% after five cycles. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) was at 27.33 mg g−1 in an acidic medium, of which the value is worth comparable with other low-cost adsorbents
[en] A simple method has been developed to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with fractal structures with epoxy resin microspheres (ERMs). The ERMs is produced by phase separation in an epoxy-amine curing system with a silica sol (SS) dispersant. The transparent epoxy solution becomes cloudy and turns into epoxy suspension (ES) in this process. The fractal structure (two tier structure) generated by synthetic epoxy resin microspheres (ERMs) and deposited nanoincrutations on the surfaces of these ERMs, which have been observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The curing time of ES is an important condition to obtain films with good comprehensive performances. Superhydrophobic films can be prepared by adding extra SS into ES with a curing time longer than 5 h. The optimal curing time is 10 h to fabricate a film with good mechanical stability and high superhydrophobicity. In addition, a surface with anti-wetting property of impacting microdroplets can be fabricated by prolonging the curing time of ES to 24 h. The gradually decreased hydrophilic groups resulted from a longer curing time enable the surface to have smaller surface adhesions to water droplets, which is the main reason to keep its superhydrophobicity under impacting conditions. The coated surface is highly hydrophobic and the impacting water droplets are bounced off from the surface.