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[en] Highlights: • Models of thermoelectric generator arrays in series and parallel under different heat flux were made. • Models of the thermoelectric generator arrays were experimentally verified. • The number of the thermoelectric generators in array for maximum output power was optimized. - Abstract: The study on thermoelectric generator combined with the solar concentrator has increased rapidly in recent years. However, the solar concentrator inevitably causes the uneven distribution of the heat flux, which would significantly impact the performance of the thermoelectric generator array. This work presented the models of thermoelectric generators in series connection and parallel connection. Furthermore, series of experiments were made to verify the rationality of the model. In addition, the discussion based on the model was conducted to optimize the output power. The results indicated that for the thermoelectric generator array with the large heat flux gradient, which may be more effective and efficient to obtain higher output power through giving up lower heat flux part, which also can reduce the number of the thermoelectric generator modules. This work can be as a hint for the optimization of the solar thermoelectric generator
[en] India is an agricultural country and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) accounts for nearly three fourth of the annual pesticide consumption. Selected OCPs were therefore quantified in 81 soil samples along urban–suburban–rural transect from New Delhi and Agra in the north, Kolkata in the east, Mumbai and Goa in the west and Chennai and Bangalore in the southern part of India. ΣOCPs ranges from 2 to 410 ng/g dry weight (Mean, 35) with dominance of endosulfan sulfate in the rural sites. Urban centers and suburbs reflects OCP usage for vector control. Lower winter temperature in New Delhi favored site-specific deposition of most OCPs in soil. Volatilization of OCPs from soil occurred in the Indian cities having higher ambient temperature. Due to the compounded impact of past and ongoing usage of selected OCPs like DDT, a sporadic cycle of emission and re-emission from Indian soil is expected to continue for many more years to come. - Highlights: • Quantification of selected OCPs in the surface soil of seven major cities located in Northern, Eastern, Western and Southern part of India. • Occurrence and Source apportionment of selected OCPs. • Assessment of air–soil exchange for selected OCPs. - Soil, organochlorine pesticides, Distribution, India, Sources, fugacity fractions
[en] Year-round bulk air deposition samples were collected at 15 sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) on a bimonthly basis from Dec 2003 to Nov 2004, and the particle-phase deposition of BDE-209, PAHs, DDTs and chlordane was measured. The annual deposition fluxes of BDE-209, total PAHs (15 compounds), total DDT (sum of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, and o,p'-DDT ), and chlordane (sum of trans-chlordane and cis-chlordane) varied from 32.6 to 1970 μg m-2 yr-1, 22 to 290 μg m-2 yr-1, 0.8 to 11 μg m-2 yr-1, and 0.25 to 1.9 μg m-2 yr-1, respectively. Spatial variations were higher in the centre of the PRD and lower at the coastal sites for all compounds. The seasonal variations of deposition were found to be compound-dependent, influenced by a number of factors, such as the timing of source input, temperature, and precipitation etc. In particular, source input time affected the deposition fluxes of BDE-209 and high-weight PAHs, while temperature-dependent gas-particle partitioning was a key factor for DDT and light-weight PAH deposition. During the whole sampling period, the atmospheric deposition of BDE-209, ΣPAHs, ΣDDTs, and chlordane onto Hong Kong reached about 93, 86, 2.1 and 2.1 kg yr-1, respectively, and onto the PRD reached about 13,400, 2950, 82, and 63 kg yr-1. By comparing the calculated total air deposition with the burden in the soils, the half residual time of BDE-209 in soils was estimated to be 3 years.
[en] Dongjiang (East River) is the key resource of potable water for the Pearl River Delta region, South China. Although industrial activities are limited in the water conservation area along this river, agriculture is very intensive. The present study evaluated trace metals in four soils under different cultivation. The total concentrations of trace metals decreased in the order orchard soil > vegetable soil > paddy soil > natural soil, reflecting decreasing inputs of agrochemicals to soils. Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. The 206Pb/207Pb ratio in the above-ground tissues of plant was significantly lower than their corresponding soils. In combination with the low transfer factor of Pb from soil to plant shoots, atmospheric deposition is probably a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves. Regular monitoring on the soil quality in this area is recommended for the safety of water resource and agricultural products. - Highlights: ► Soil Cd exceeded the upper limit of Chinese standard for agricultural soils. ► Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. ► Agricultural soil had higher concentrations of metals and lower 206Pb/207Pb ratios. ► Pb in above-ground tissues of plant was more anthropogenic than soil. ► Atmospheric deposition may be a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves.
[en] This is the first robust study designed to probe selected flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor and outdoor dust of industrial, rural and background zones of Pakistan with special emphasis upon their occurrence, distribution and associated health risk. For this purpose, we analyzed FRs such as polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in the total of 82 dust samples (indoor and outdoor) collected three from each zone: industrial, rural and background. We found higher concentrations of FRs (PBDEs, DP, NBFRs and OPFRs) in industrial zones as compared to the rural and background zones. Our results reveal that the concentrations of studied FRs are relatively higher in the indoor dust samples being compared with the outdoor dust and they are ranked as: ∑OPFRs > ∑NBFRs > ∑PBDEs > ∑DP. A significant correlation in the FRs levels between the indoor and outdoor dust suggest the potential intermixing of these compounds between them. The principal component analysis/multiple linear regression predicts the percent contribution of FRs from different consumer products in the indoor and outdoor dust of industrial, rural and background zones to trace their source origin. The FRs detected in the background zones reveal the dust-bound FRs suspended in the air might be shifted from different warmer zones or consumers products available/used in the same zones. Hazard quotient (HQ) for FRs via indoor and outdoor dust intake at mean and high dust scenarios to the exposed populations (adults and toddlers) are found free of risk (HQ < 1) in the target zones. Furthermore, our nascent results will provide a baseline record of FRs (PBDEs, DP, NBFRs and OPFRs) concentrations in the indoor and outdoor dust of Pakistan. - Highlights: • The first report on PBDEs, DP, NBFRs & OPFRs concentration in indoor & outdoor dust. • The first time detection of FRs in background zones of Pakistan have been investigated. • Significant correlation in FRs levels between indoor & outdoor dust were observed. • HQ for targeted FRs to toddlers and adults via indoor & outdoor dust intake was <1. - The first report indicates different levels of dust bound FRs between indoor and outdoor environments as well as sources and risk diagnosis at different altitudinal zones of Pakistan.
[en] Transformation from natural forests to planted forests in tropical regions is an expanding global phenomenon causing major modifications of land cover and soil properties, e.g. soil organic carbon (SOC). This study investigated accumulations of POPs in soils under eucalyptus and rubber forests as compared with adjacent natural forests on Hainan Island, China. Results showed that due to the greater forest filter effect and the higher SOC, the natural forest have accumulated larger amounts of POPs in the top 20 cm soil. Based on correlation and air-soil equilibrium analysis, we highlighted the importance of SOC in the distribution of POPs. It is assumed that the elevated mobility of POPs in the planted forests was caused by greater loss of SOC and extensive leaching in the soil profile. This suggests that a better understanding of global POPs fate should take into consideration the role of planted forests. - Highlights: • The natural forests have accumulated larger amounts of POPs than the planted forests. • Forest filter effect and SOC are two controlling factors. • A better understanding of global POPs fate should take into consideration the role of planted forests. - Natural forests have accumulated larger amounts of POPs compared to planted forests, due to the greater forest filter effect and the higher SOC.
[en] A compact "1"4C AMS facility manufactured by the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) has been installed at Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (GIGCAS). The system is based on a Model 1.5SDH-1 Pelletron accelerator with a maximum terminal volt 0.6 MV. This paper reports the performance and the operation of this machine in the first several months after installation.
[en] Rhizosphere effects on the distribution of PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils were investigated. The geometric means of the PBDEs in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were 32.6 ng/g and 12.2 ng/g, whereas the geometric means of the PBDEs in vegetable shoots and roots were 2.15 ng/g and 3.02 ng/g, respectively. PBDEs in soil at different distances from the root surface may first rise appreciably and then decrease to a non-rhizosphere level for long-term contaminated soils. Different PBDE compositions in roots and shoots indicated that PBDEs in shoots may be mainly taken up from the air. The ratios of BDE99/100 and BDE153/154 in plants and their corresponding soils were different. The bioaccumulations of BDEs 100 and 154 were much higher than those of BDEs 99 and 153, respectively. This indicated that the bioaccumulation was selective and influenced by the substitution pattern, with ortho-substituted isomers being more prevalent than meta-substituted isomers. -- Highlights: • PBDEs in rhizosphere soils were higher than those in non-rhizosphere soils. • PBDEs in soil may first be accumulated and then reduced towards root surface. • Bioaccumulation of PBDEs is selective and influenced by substituent effect. • Bioaccumulations of BDEs 100 and 154 were much higher than BDEs 99 and 153. -- The bioaccumulation of PBDE isomers was selective and influenced by the substituent effect, with ortho-substitution being favored over meta-substitution
[en] The spatial and temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated in Daya Bay, China. The total concentration of the 16 USEPA priority PAHs in surface sediments ranged from 42.5 to 158.2 ng/g dry weight with a mean concentration of 126.2 ng/g. The spatial distribution of PAHs was site-specific and combustion processes were the main source of PAHs in the surface sediments. Total 16 priority PAH concentration in the cores 8 and 10 ranged from 77.4 to 305.7 ng/g and from 118.1 to 319.9 ng/g respectively. The variation of the 16 PAH concentrations in both cores followed the economic development in China very well and was also influenced by input pathways. Some of the PAHs were petrogenic in core 8 while pyrolytic source was dominant in core 10. In addition, pyrolytic PAHs in both cores were mainly from the coal and/or grass and wood combustion. - A survey of sediments from Daya Bay serves as a baseline study for levels, distributions and possible sources of PAHs in surface sediments and both core sediments.
[en] PCN congeners were analyzed in marine and riverine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China. Concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.12 to 5.1 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 1.1 ng g-1 dw. The levels of PCNs varied largely, with industrial group approximately ten folds higher than those of the rural in riverine sediment. A strong impact by direct discharge from local factories was suggested. Similar compositional profiles were found within groups. High resemblance of compositional profiles between industrial samples and Halowax 1014 was observed. It was indicated that PCNs in riverine sediments were mainly from release of industrial usage, with additional contributions from industrial thermal process at certain sites. In marine sediments, it was suggested that PCNs along the coast of Laizhou Bay were mainly controlled by riverine input. While in the central bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - Highlights: → We investigated the PCN levels both in the riverine and marine surface sediments of Laizhou Bay. → PCN concentrations in the river sediments of industrial group were ten times higher than in the rural group. → Leakage from industrial materials and thermal processes were the major sources. → PCNs in the coastal sites were more influenced by the river discharge. → In the centre bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - A systematic sampling of riverine and marine sediments was conducted in Laizhou Bay area to investigate the distribution and possible sources of PCNs.